Alloy Artifacts  

Wartime Production

During the 1941-1945 wartime years Duro/Indestro tool production was devoted to the war effort, as was the case with other tool companies. Duro/Indestro wartime production included large numbers of open-end wrenches, box wrenches, socket sets, and other tools.

Production during this period can be identified by plain or cadmium finishes, the frequent use of a stamped X-Circle logo or "G" date code, and other changes from standard civilian production. In addition, the alloy markings (e.g. "Chrome Vanadium Steel") generally found on earlier Duro/Indestro tools were omitted during the later wartime years.

Many of the tools in this section are also displayed in other parts of this article, but are gathered here to allow a better understanding of the production changes during the wartime era.


Sockets and Drive Tools

During the wartime period Duro/Indestro's socket production used a simple knurled band with a "D - I" marking instead of the usual company brands. More discussion on the "D - I" marking can be found at D-I Socket Marking in our section on Tool Identification.


Super-Quality 1/4-Drive Socket Set with "D - I" Sockets

[Super-Quality 1/4-Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 286. Super-Quality 1/4-Drive Socket Set with "D - I" Sockets, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 286 shows a Super-Quality 1/4-drive socket set, consisting of a flex-head handle, a cross-bar, a 6 inch extension, and 11 sockets with double-hex, hex, or double-square broachings.

The set is marked with a decal on the inside cover reading "Super Quality Socket Set" with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in the center, and with the Indestro logo at the bottom.

All of the sockets except one are marked "D - I", and the exception is actually marked "4511 Duro-Chrome", the standard model number for a 1/4-drive 11/32 socket.

The inclusion of "Chrome Vanadium Steel" on the sticker suggests that the steel quality remains uncompromised, at least for these tools. Otherwise, the tools have a dull industrial finish and the box is a drab olive color, as would be expected for wartime production.


Open-End Wrenches


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1725-B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1725-B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 287. Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1725-B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 287 shows a Duro-Chrome 1725-B 1/2x9/16 open-end wrench, stamped with the X-Circle logo on the face, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse face.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with extensive pitting due to rust.


Duro-Chrome "G" 1025 1/2x19/32 Open-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 1025 1/2x19/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 288. Duro-Chrome 1025 1/2x19/32 Open-End Wrench, 1945.

Fig. 288 shows a Duro-Chrome 1025 1/2x19/32 open-end wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." along a curved arc on one face, with a "G" code and the model number on the other face.

The overall length is 6.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain finish and stamped "G" code indicate a manufacturing date in 1945.

Other examples of the "G" date code can be seen on the Duro-Chrome "G" 1027 Wrench and Duro-Chrome "G" 2011 Wrench.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1027C 9/16x11/16 Open-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1027C 9/16x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 289. Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1027C 9/16x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 289 shows a Duro-Chrome 1027C 9/16x11/16 open-end wrench, stamped with the X-Circle logo on the face, with "Forged in U.S.A." along a curved arc on the reverse face.

The overall length is 7.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Duro-Chrome "G" 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome G 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 290. Duro-Chrome "G" 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, 1945.

Fig. 290 shows a Duro-Chrome 1027 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." on one face, with a "G" code and the model number on the other end.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is black oxide augmented with rust.

The black oxide finish and stamped "G" code indicate a manufacturing date in 1945 under government regulations.

Other examples of this "G" date code can be seen on the Duro-Chrome "G" 1025 Wrench and Duro-Chrome "G" 2011 Wrench, and the "G" date code was used by Snap-On and Williams as well.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1028-S 5/8x25/32 Open-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1028-S 5/8x25/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 291. Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1028-S 5/8x25/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 291 shows a Duro-Chrome 1028-S 5/8x25/32 open-end wrench, stamped with the X-Circle logo on the face, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse face.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 292. Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1731 3/4x13/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 292 shows a Duro-Chrome 1731 3/4x13/16 open-end wrench, stamped with the X-Circle logo on the face, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse face.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished faces.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1731-A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1731-A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 293. Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1731-A 3/4x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 293 shows a Duro-Chrome 1731-A 3/4x7/8 open-end wrench, stamped with the X-Circle logo on the face, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse face.

The overall length is 9.2 inches, and the finish is black oxide.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1034-A 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1034-A 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 294. Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 1034-A 15/16x1-1/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 294 shows a Duro-Chrome 1034-A 15/16x1-1/16 open-end wrench, stamped with the X-Circle logo on the face, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse face.

The overall length is 10.5 inches, and the finish is black oxide.


Tappet Wrenches


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) [D-] 2 1/2x9/16 Tappet Wrench

[Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) No. 2 1/2x9/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 295. Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) No. 2 1/2x9/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 295 shows a Duro-Chrome No. 2 1/2x9/16 tappet wrench, stamped with the X-Circle logo on the face, with "Forged in U.S.A." in a curved arc on the reverse face.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Combination Wrenches


Duro-Chrome "G" 2237 3/4 Thin Combination Wrench

[Duro-Chrome G 2237 3/4 Thin Combination Wrench]
Fig. 296. Duro-Chrome "G" 2237 3/4 Thin Combination Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, 1945.

Fig. 296 shows a Duro-Chrome 2237 3/4 thin combination wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." on the face, and with a "G" code by the model number (see inset).

The overall length is 10.1 inches, and the finish is black oxide augmented by rust.

The oxide finish and stamped "G" code indicate a manufacturing date in 1945, when government regulations prevented the use of chrome finishes. Other examples of the "G" date code can be seen on the Duro-Chrome "G" 1027 Wrench and Duro-Chrome "G" 2011 Wrench.


Box-End Wrenches


Offset Box-End Wrenches


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2053 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2053 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 297. Duro-Chrome 2053 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 297 shows a Duro-Chrome 2053 5/8x11/16 offset box wrench with streamlined raised panels, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and the X-Circle logo on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is black oxide augmented by rust.

The lack of the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.


Super-Quality (X-Circle) [733] 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Super-Quality (X-Circle) 733 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 298. Super-Quality (X-Circle) [733] 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 298 shows a Super-Quality [733] 3/4x25/32 offset box wrench with streamlined raised panels, stamped with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the front panel, with "Super-Quality" and the X-Circle logo on the reverse panel. Although this example is not marked with a model number, this would be model 733 in the standard Super-Quality (later Indestro Super) line.

The overall length is 11.4 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The lack of the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.

An earlier example of this model can be seen as the Indestro "Chicago" 733 Offset Box Wrench, and the Duro-Chrome equivalent model can be seen as the Duro-Chrome 2054 Offset Box Wrench.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2055 13/16x7/8 Offset Box Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2055 13/16x7/8 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 299. Duro-Chrome 2055 13/16x7/8 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 299 shows a Duro-Chrome 2055 13/16x7/8 offset box wrench with parallelogram raised panels, stamped with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the front panel, with "Duro-Chrome" and the X-Circle logo on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 12.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lack of the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.

This wrench is a rare example of the parallelogram panel design being used on a tool marked for Duro or Indestro. More typically the parallelogram design was used for contract production, as for example the ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 Offset Box Wrench.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2056 15/16x1 Offset Box Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2056 15/16x1 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 300. Duro-Chrome 2056 15/16x1 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 300 shows a Duro-Chrome 2056 15/16x1 offset box wrench with streamlined raised panels, stamped with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the front panel, with "Duro-Chrome" and the X-Circle logo on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 14.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lack of the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2058A 1-3/16x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2058A 1-3/16x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 301. Duro-Chrome 2058A 1-3/16x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 301 shows a Duro-Chrome 2058A 1-3/16x1-1/4 offset box wrench with streamlined raised panels, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and the X-Circle logo on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 18.0 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The lack of the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years. Note also the somewhat poorly trimmed edges visible in the top inset, another indication of wartime production.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2058B 1-1/8x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2058B 1-1/8x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 302. Duro-Chrome 2058B 1-1/8x1-1/4 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 302 shows a Duro-Chrome 2058B 1-1/8x1-1/4 offset box wrench with streamlined raised panels, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and the X-Circle logo on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 18.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lack of the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.


Short Offset Box-End Wrenches


X-Circle [Duro-Chrome 2042] 1/2x8/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench

[X-Circle Duro-Chrome 2042 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 302B. X-Circle [Duro-Chrome 2042] 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Side View, 1943-1945.

Fig. 302B shows an X-Circle [Duro-Chrome 2042] 1/2x9/16 short offset box wrench, stamped "Made in U.S.A." with the X-Circle logo and fractional sizes.

The overall length is 5.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench has an oval shank without the raised panels used by Duro after 1937, suggesting that an older forging die from the Handy-Hex era was put back in service. The plain finish and minimal markings indicate production during 1943-1945 wartime years.

Duro-Chrome "G" 2042 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome G 2042 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 302C. Duro-Chrome "G" 2042 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, 1945.

Fig. 302C shows a Duro-Chrome 2042 1/2x9/16 short offset box wrench, stamped "Duro-Chrome" with the model number on the streamlined raised panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse. Note also the stamped "G" code in front of the model number.

The overall length is 5.2 inches, and the finish is black oxide.

The black oxide finish would suggest a manufacturing date during 1942-1945, but the "G" code stamped on the panel indicates a more precise 1945 date. The "G" code indicates manufacture in 1945 under restrictive government regulations, and can be found occasionally on tools of this era. (The use of the "G" date code by Snap-on is well documented.)


Angled (15 Degree) Box-End Wrenches


Duro-Chrome "G" 2011 3/8x7/16 Box-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome G 2011 3/8x7/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 303. Duro-Chrome "G" 2011 3/8x7/16 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, 1945.

Fig. 303 shows a Duro-Chrome 2011 3/8x7/16 box-end wrench, stamped with the Duro-Chrome trademark and a "G" code on the streamlined raised panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 6.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The stamped "G" code and plain finish indicate a wartime production date in 1945.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2013 9/16x5/8 Box-End Wrenches

The next two figures show examples of wartime production for the Duro-Chrome 2013 box wrench.

[Duro-Chrome 2013 9/16x5/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 304A. Duro-Chrome 2013 9/16x5/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 304A shows a Duro-Chrome 2013 9/16x5/8 box-end wrench with streamlined raised panels, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and the X-Circle logo on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

[Duro-Chrome 2013 9/16x5/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 304B. Duro-Chrome 2013 9/16x5/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 304B shows a Duro-Chrome 2013 9/16x5/8 box wrench with raised parallelogram panels, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and the X-Circle logo on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel or black oxide.

The second wrench is a rare example of the parallelogram panel design being used on a tool marked for Duro or Indestro. Normally the parallelogram design was used only for contract production, as for example the ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 Offset Box Wrench. One possible explanation is that under the pressure of wartime production quotas, Duro/Indestro found it necessary to use the older forging dies left over from their contract production runs.


Duro-Chrome "G" 2014A 11/16x3/4 Box-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome G 2014A 11/16x3/4 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 305. Duro-Chrome "G" 2014A 11/16x3/4 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, 1945.

Fig. 305 shows a Duro-Chrome 2014A 11/16x3/4 box-end wrench with streamlined raised panels, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and a "G" code on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 10.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel or black oxide.

The stamped "G" code and plain finish indicate a wartime production date in 1945.


Duro-Chrome 2015 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrenches

The next three figures show examples of the Duro-Chrome 2015 wrench, all from wartime production but with interesting differences in construction and marking.

[Duro-Chrome 2015 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 306. Duro-Chrome 2015 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1941-1942.

Fig. 306 shows a Duro-Chrome 2015 3/4x7/8 box-end wrench with raised streamlined panels, stamped "Duro-Chrome" and "Forged in U.S.A." on the front panel, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" and the fractional sizes on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 11.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain finish suggests production during the wartime years, and the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking suggests the earlier 1941-1942 period.

Except for the plain finish, this wrench would be typical of Duro's production in the late 1930s to early 1940s.

[Duro-Chrome 2015 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 307. Duro-Chrome 2015 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1941-1942.

Fig. 307 shows a Duro-Chrome 2015 3/4x7/8 box-end wrench with raised parallelogram panels, stamped "Duro-Chrome" and "Forged in U.S.A." on the front panel, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" and the fractional sizes on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 11.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain finish and the use of parallelogram panels on a Duro-marked tool suggest production during the wartime years, and the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking suggests the earlier 1941-1942 period.

This wrench is a rare example of the parallelogram panel design being used on a tool marked for Duro or Indestro. Normally the parallelogram design was used only for contract production, as for example the ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 Offset Box Wrench. One possible explanation is that under the pressure of wartime production quotas, Duro/Indestro found it necessary to use the older forging dies left over from their contract production runs.

[Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2015 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 308. Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2015 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 308 shows a slightly later Duro-Chrome 2015 3/4x7/8 box-end wrench with raised streamlined panels, stamped "Duro-Chrome" with the X-Circle logo on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 11.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lack of the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.

This wrench is very similar to the corresponding Super-Quality 715 Box Wrench in the next figure.


Super-Quality (X-Circle) [715] 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench

[Super-Quality 715 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 309. Super-Quality [715] 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 309 shows a Super-Quality [715] 3/4x7/8 box-end wrench with raised streamlined panels, stamped "Super-Quality" with the X-Circle logo on the front panel, and with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse panel. Although not marked with a model number, the Indestro catalog identifies this as a model 715 wrench.

The overall length is 11.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of cadmium plating.

The lack of the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.

This wrench is very similar to the corresponding Duro-Chrome 2015 Box Wrench in the previous figure.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2015A 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2015A 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 310A. Duro-Chrome 2015A 13/16x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 310A shows a Duro-Chrome 2015A 13/16x7/8 box-end wrench with streamlined panels, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and the X-Circle logo on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 11.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lack of the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.


Duro-Chrome 2017 1-1/16x1-1/8 Box-End Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2017 1-1/16x1-1/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 310B. Duro-Chrome 2017 1-1/16x1-1/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1941-1942.

Fig. 310B shows a Duro-Chrome 2017 1-1/16x1-1/8 box-end wrench with streamlined panels, stamped "Duro-Chrome" and "Forged in U.S.A." on the raised panel, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" and the fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 17.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain finish suggests production in the early wartime years.


Short Box-End Wrenches


Super-Quality [752] 1/2x9/16 Short Box-End Wrench

[Super-Quality 752 1/2x9/16 Short Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 311. Super-Quality [752] 1/2x9/16 Short Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 311 shows a Super-Quality [752] 1/2x9/16 short box-end wrench with streamlined raised panels, stamped "Super-Quality" with the X-Circle logo on the front panel, and with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 4.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished faces and ends.

The plain finish and lack of an alloy steel marking suggest production during the mid to late wartime years.


Super-Quality 753 5/8x11/16 Short Box-End Wrenches

The next two figures show examples of the Super-Quality 753 wrench, both from the wartime period but with differences in markings.

[Super-Quality 753 5/8x11/16 Short Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 312A. Super-Quality 753 5/8x11/16 Short Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1943.

Fig. 312A shows an earlier Super-Quality 753 5/8x11/16 short box-end wrench with streamlined panels, stamped with the model and brand on the front panel, and with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 5.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel with polished faces and ends.

The plain finish and lack of an alloy steel marking suggest production during the wartime years, and the presence of the standard model number suggests the earlier 1942-1943 period.

[Super-Quality 5/8x11/16 Short Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 312B. Super-Quality (X-Circle) [753] 5/8x11/16 Short Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 312B shows a slightly later Super-Quality [753] 5/8x11/16 short box-end wrench with streamlined panels, stamped with "Super-Quality" and the X-Circle logo on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 5.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The missing model number, lack of an alloy steel marking, and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2081 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box Wrench

[Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2081 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box Wrench]
Fig. 313. Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2081 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 313 shows a Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2081 9/16x5/8 half-moon box wrench, stamped "Manifold & Starter" with the X-Circle logo and fractional sizes on one side, with "Duro-Chrome" and the model number plus "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lack of an alloy marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.

Other examples of this tool can be seen as the Handy-Hex 02081 Half-Moon Wrench and Duro-Chrome 2081 Half-Moon Wrench. In addtion, this tool is basically identical to the Indestro Super-Quality 769 Half-Moon Wrench and Super-Quality (X-Circle) [769] Half-Moon Wrench shown in other figures.


Super-Quality (X-Circle) [769] 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box Wrench

[Super-Quality (X-Circle) 769 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box Wrench]
Fig. 314. Super-Quality (X-Circle) [769] 9/16x5/8 Half-Moon Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 314 shows a Super-Quality (X-Circle) [769] 9/16x5/8 half-moon box wrench, stamped with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on one side, with "Super-Quality" and the X-Circle logo on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lack of the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking and use of the X-Circle logo suggest production in the later 1943-1945 wartime years.

Although not marked with a model number, this tool is basically identical to the Indestro Super-Quality 769 Half-Moon Wrench and Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 2081 Half-Moon Wrench shown in other figures.


Refrigeration Specialty Tools

Refrigeration service was a specialty field that hadn't even existed prior to the 1920s, but which grew rapidly during the 1930s and later. Refrigeration technicians of course needed special tools, and Duro was one of the more highly regarded makers of such tools.

The special tools typically used for refrigeration service included ratchets with extra openings on the handle, sockets for gland-nut packings, and various styles of flare-nut wrenches. The figures below will show some examples of Duro and Indestro refrigeration tools.


Indestro Super 368 3/8x7/16 Flare-Nut Wrench

[Indestro Super 368 3/8x7/16 Flare-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 315. Indestro Super 368 3/8x7/16 Flare-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 315 shows an Indestro Super 368 3/8x7/16 flare-nut wrench, stamped with the brand and model number on the streamlined raised panel, and with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 5.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces and panels.


Duro-Chrome 369 1/2x9/16 Flare-Nut Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 369 1/2x9/16 Flare-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 316. Duro-Chrome 369 1/2x9/16 Flare-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 316 shows a Duro-Chrome 369 1/2x9/16 flare-nut wrench, stamped "Duro-Chrome" on the streamlined raised panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces and panels.


Duro-Chrome 371 3/4x1 Inch Flare-Nut Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 371 3/4x1 Inch Flare-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 317. Duro-Chrome 371 3/4x1 Inch Flare-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 317 shows a Duro-Chrome 371 3/4x1 inch flare-nut wrench, stamped "Duro-Chrome" on the streamlined raised panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces and panels.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 372 7/8x1-1/8 Flare-Nut Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 372 7/8x1-1/8 Flare-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 318. Duro-Chrome 372 7/8x1-1/8 Flare-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 318 shows a Duro-Chrome 372 7/8x1-1/8 flare-nut wrench with streamlined raised panels, stamped "Duro-Chrome" with the X-Circle logo on the front, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The plain finish and X-Circle marking indicate production during the 1942-1945 wartime period.


Duro-Chrome Deep Offset Flare Wrenches

In addition to the flat flare-nut style illustrated above, Duro produced a series of four flare wrench models in an unusual deep offset configuration. The deep offsets and somewhat odd paired sizes suggest that these were designed for some fairly specific application.

[Duro-Chrome 38x Series Deep Offset Flare-Nut Wrenches]
Fig. 319. Duro-Chrome 38x Series Deep Offset Flare-Nut Wrenches.

Fig. 319 shows all four of the Duro-Chrome offset flare-nut wrench models, and the subsequent figures will show each wrench in greater detail.

The models and sizes are, from the top down, 381 (5/8x13/16), 382 (3/4x1 Inch), 383 (7/8x1-1/8), and 384 (1x1-3/16).


Duro-Chrome 381 Offset 5/8x13/16 Flare-Nut Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 381 5/8x13/16 Offset Flare-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 320. Duro-Chrome 381 5/8x13/16 Offset Flare-Nut Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 320 shows a Duro-Chrome 381 5/8x13/16 offset flare-nut wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the streamlined raised panel, with "Duro-Chrome" on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The markings on this wrench differ from the Duro standard convention in that the model number is placed on the opposite side from the company name. A small number of examples have been found with this variation, and we're not sure if it was intentional or just an accident in setting up the marking machine.


Duro-Chrome 382 3/4x1 Inch Offset Flare-Nut Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 382 3/4x1 Offset Flare-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 321. Duro-Chrome 382 3/4x1 Offset Flare-Nut Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 321 shows a Duro-Chrome 382 3/4x1 offset flare-nut wrench, stamped "Forged in U.S.A." on the streamlined raised panel with "Duro Chrome" on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The markings on this wrench differ from the Duro standard convention in that the model number is placed on the opposite side from the company name. A small number of examples have been found with this variation, and we're not sure if it was intentional or just an accident in setting up the marking machine.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 383 7/8x1-1/8 Offset Flare-Nut Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 383 7/8x1-1/8 Offset Flare-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 322. Duro-Chrome 383 7/8x1-1/8 Offset Flare-Nut Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1942-1945.

Fig. 322 shows a Duro-Chrome 383 7/8x1-1/8 offset flare-nut wrench, stamped "Duro Chrome" with the X-Circle logo on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 9.2 inches. The finish is plain steel with traces of cadmium plating, indicating a likely manufacturing date from 1942-1945.


Duro-Chrome (X-Circle) 384 1x1-3/16 Offset Flare-Nut Wrench

The next figure shows the largest wrench of the offset flare-nut set.

[Duro-Chrome 384 1x1-3/16 Offset Flare-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 323. Duro-Chrome 384 1x1-3/16 Offset Flare-Nut Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1941-1942.

Fig. 323 shows a Duro-Chrome 384 1x1-3/16 offset flare-nut wrench, stamped "Duro Chrome" with the X-Circle logo on the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 9.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The X-Circle mark suggests production during the wartime years, and the chrome plated finish suggests the earlier 1941-1942 period.


Duro-Chrome 4490 1/4-Drive Refrigeration Ratchet

Ratchets designed for refrigeration use typically included extra broached openings on the handle, so that the single tool could operate with commonly used valves or nuts. The ratchet drive was usually a 1/4 square female broaching, the most common size used for the square valve stem on tanks of compressed refrigerant gases.

[Duro-Chrome 4490 1/4-Drive Refrigeration Ratchet]
Fig. 324. Duro-Chrome 4490 1/4-Drive Refrigeration Ratchet, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 324 shows a Duro-Chrome 4490 1/4 female drive ratchet, marked "Duro-Chrome" on the face plate with "Pat. No. 1,902,878" on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The handle includes broachings for several commonly used sizes, including 3/16 square, 5/16 square, 1/4 square, and 1/2 double-hex.

The patent notice refers to the well-known patent for the pressed-flange ratchet construction. Other examples of this patent can be seen in the Duro 678D Ratchet and Indestro 3201 Ratchet.

Refrigeration ratchets were made by several other companies, including Bonney, Snap-On, and Walden. An example can be seen in the Walden-Worcester 867 Ratchet.


Duro-Chrome 34x 1/4 Male Drive Sockets

The special ratchets used for refrigeration service were generally furnished with 1/4 female drive, which means that an adapter stud would be needed to use conventional sockets. Duro provided a more convenient alternative by making special 1/4 male-drive sockets in the sizes and broachings commonly needed in this application.

[Duro-Chrome 34x 1/4 Male Drive Sockets]
Fig. 325. Duro-Chrome 1/4 Male Drive Sockets, from Left: 341 (3/16), 344 (5/16).

Fig. 325 at the left shows two examples of the 1/4 male drive Duro-Chrome 34x socket series, each marked "U.S.A." with the "Duro-Chrome" trademark.

The models and sizes are 341 (3/16) on the left and 344 (5/16) on the right, and both sockets have square (4-point) broachings.


Duro-Chrome 338 5/8 Gland Nut Tee Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 338 Gland Nut Tee Wrench]
Fig. 326. Duro-Chrome 338 5/8 Gland Nut Tee Wrench, with Inset for End Detail.

Fig. 326 shows a Duro-Chrome 338 5/8 gland nut wrench with a sliding Tee-handle, marked "U.S.A." with the "Duro-Chrome" trademark.

The lengths of the socket and handle are 1.9 and 3.7 inches, respectively.

That completes our brief tour of Duro's refrigeration specialty tools. In the next section we'll see some examples of Duro/Indestro contract production, tools produced by Duro but marked for other companies.


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