Alloy Artifacts  

Contract Production

The previous sections have looked at Duro and Indestro tools marked with their own trademarks or informal brands. Duro/Indestro was also very active as a contract manufacturer for other companies, and these contract tools were generally marked with the other companies' trademarks. In this page we'll look at some examples of Duro/Indestro production marked for other companies.

The examples below are representative of the contract production, but there are likely many more examples that have yet to be identified.


Perfection

The 1933 Western Auto catalog offered a series of six offset box wrenches under the heading "Perfection Quality", listed right under the section for their top-quality Van-Chrome Multihex offset box wrenches. The catalog noted that the Perfection wrenches were of identical shape and size as the Multihex line, but were available at a significant discount, $2.98 for the set of six, compared with $4.85 for the Multihex. A later check found the same "Perfection" wrenches also available in the 1932 Western Auto catalog.

We've found a few wrenches marked "Perfection" and believe that these are the items sold by Western Auto. The wrenches are very similar to the Indestro Polygon examples, and also closely resemble the Herbrand Multihex wrenches. These observations suggest that the "Perfection" wrenches were made by Duro as intentional copies of the Herbrand models, probably in an attempt to win more business from Western Auto.

The "Perfection" marking appears to have been used only briefly, as it wasn't mentioned in the 1934 Western Auto catalog. But the catalog did offer a second line of "Standard Quality" chrome-vanadium offset box wrenches, and these are believed to be the "Perfection" wrenches rebranded as the Indestro "Polygon" line.

More information on "Perfection" wrenches can be found in our article on Western Auto Supply at Western Auto CV Box Wrenches.


Perfection P-27 5/8x11/16 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Perfection P-27 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 410. Perfection P-27 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1932-1933.

Fig. 410 shows a Perfection P-27 5/8x11/16 offset box wrench, stamped "Perfection" with the fractional sizes on the front, with "Chromium-Vanadium" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is nickel plating, with extensive losses due to rust.


Chromium Vanadium

In 1931 Western Auto Supply began using "Chromium Vanadium" as an informal brand for its line of alloy steel tools. Both Duro and Indestro became major suppliers for the line, initially as separate companies, and the tools produced for Western Auto were generally stamped "Chromium Vanadium".

Since chrome-vanadium steel was Duro/Indestro's preferred alloy steel at the time anyway, the "Chromium Vanadium" markings were retained on many Indestro tools for most of the 1930s, and continued well after Western Auto had stopped using the full element names as a brand. (In 1934 and later Western Auto generally used a descriptive term such as "Chrome-Vanadium Steel" in its catalogs.)

The continued use of the "Chromium Vanadium" marking raises some ambiguity as to whether any particular tool was made as contract production, for Western Auto or for other companies such as Montgomery Ward, or whether it was just part of Indestro's normal production.

In this section we'll show some examples believed to date to the first half of the 1930s, before the advent of the "ChromeXQuality" marking covered in the next section.


[Indestro] Chrome-Vanadium N696 "Junior Mechanics" 25-Piece Socket Set

This next figure shows a significant socket set made for Western Auto Supply in 1935, just before the start of the "ChromeXQuality" era.

[Indestro N696 Chrome-Vanadium Junior Mechanics 25-Piece Socket Set]
Fig. 411. [Indestro] N696 Chrome-Vanadium "Junior Mechanics" 25-Piece Socket Set, ca. 1935.

Fig. 411 shows an [Indestro] "Chrome-Vanadium Steel" N696 socket set with a substantial collection of 1/2-drive socket tools, plus a set of miniature 1/4-drive tools in the small box at the left.

The 1/2-drive tools consist of a ratchet and drive plug, a 6 inch extension, a double-female universal, a screwdriver bit, and 10 double-hex sockets from 7/16 to 15/16. Our set is missing one of the original 1/2-drive tools, an 11 inch flex handle.

The socket sizes are, from the left, 7/16, 1/2, 9/16, 5/8, 21/32, 11/16, 3/4, 13/16, 7/8, and 15/16. The sockets are stamped with "Chromium Vanadium" and the fractional size on the base.

The tools in the set are unmarked, except for a patent number on the ratchet, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends or heads.

[1/4-Drive Socket Set from N696 Set]
Fig. 412. 1/4-Drive Socket Set from N696 Set, ca. 1935.

Fig. 412 shows the 1/4-drive socket set included with the N696 set, originally consisting of a flex handle and nine sockets, with mixed double-hex and double-square broachings. Our set is complete except for the missing cross-bar and 5/16 double-hex socket.

The socket sizes are, from the right, 1/4, 9/32, 1/4 (square), 5/16 (missing), 11/32, 5/16 (square), 3/8, 3/8 (square), and 7/16. The sockets are marked only with the fractional size.

The flex handle is unmarked and has an overall length of 5.9 inches. The finish is chrome plating.

[Decal for N696 Chrome-Vanadium Steel Socket Set]
Fig. 413. Decal for N696 Chrome-Vanadium Steel Socket Set, ca. 1935.

Fig. 413 shows a close-up of the decal on the inside of the lid of the N696 socket set. The text reads "Deluxe Quality Tools" and "Chrome-Vanadium Steel" with "Western Auto Supply Co." at the bottom.

The set is supplied in a steel box with a spot-welded divider for the sockets. The overall dimensions are 14.8 inches wide by 6.2 inches deep by 1.8 inches high.

The dimensions of the 1/4-drive set box are 6.6 inches wide by 2.6 inches deep by 1.0 inches high.

The full set is listed in the 1936 Auto Owners' Thrift Book (Eastern edition) catalog as the N696 25-piece "Junior Mechanics' Complete Set", and based on the description there our set is missing a 1/2-drive 11 inch flex handle, a cross-bar for the 1/4-drive flex handle, and one 1/4-drive socket. (The catalog listing can be seen in the section on ChromeXQuality Socket Tools.) In addition, the largest socket in our set is 15/16, rather than the 7/8 size stated in the 1936 listing.

The pressed-flange ratchet in the set is a generic version of the Indestro 3202 female-drive ratchet, a tool widely used for contract production from 1933 up to the 1950s. The ratchet has a 16-tooth drive gear and is basically identical to the Indestro Pressed-Flange Ratchet shown in another section.

The unmarked 6 inch extension can be seen in greater detail as the Indestro 3216 6 Inch Extension.

The unmarked universal can be seen in greater detail as the Indestro 3214 Double-Female Universal. This model was still available in the 1935 Indestro catalog, but was later discontinued in favor of the 3217 male-female universal. The unmarked screwdriver bit in the set serves an additional purpose as an extra drive plug for use with the double-female universal.

The manufacturing date for our N696 set can be estimated fairly precisely by a combination of production and marking details. The sockets in the set are a mix of older cold-broached and newer hot-broached construction, with the latter using Duro's patented Hot-Broaching Process. Since Duro filed the hot-broach patent in 1935, it's reasonable to assume that they would have begun producing hot-broached sockets in that year. The mix of construction styles in the set implies that the cold-broached sockets were pulled from inventory, leading to 1935 as the likely production year.

Further confirmation of the 1935 production comes from the marking on the decal for the set, as seen in Fig. 413 above. The set has a gold-colored diamond-shaped decal on the inside of the lid, very similar to the decals observed on ChromeXQuality sets such as the ChromeXQuality N693 Set. But the decal for our N696 set is marked "Chrome-Vanadium Steel" in place of "ChromeXQuality", implying production somewhat before 1936.

A catalog review provides additional evidence to support a 1935 production date. The 1934 Western Auto (Eastern edition) catalog offered an N696 socket set, but with only 1/2-drive components, and with two additional drive tools. Currently we don't have a 1935 catalog, but the 1936 (Eastern edition) catalog listed the N696 set with both 1/2-drive components and the 1/4-drive miniature set included. The components of our set as acquired are therefore consistent with production some time after 1934.


[Indestro] 1/2-Drive Cold-Broached Sockets from N696 Set

[Indestro Cold-Broached Sockets from N696 Set]
Fig. 414. Indestro 1/2-Drive Cold-Broached Sockets from N696 Set, with Insets for Bottom and Top View, ca. 1935.

Fig. 414 shows a group of three 1/2-drive cold-broached sockets from the N696 set, with sizes from the left 11/16, 7/8, and 15/16. The sockets are stamped with "Chromium Vanadium" and the fractional size on the base.

The sockets are designed with tapered upper walls and have two bands of simple knurling around the base. The finish is a mix of polished chrome on the upper walls and cadmium plating on the lower walls.

The top inset shows the drive end of the sockets, illustrating the sharp edges of the 1/2 square broached opening. Although it would be desirable to have relieved or tapered edges to the opening, in order to help depress a friction ball, adding such a taper would require a costly extra machining operation.

The lower inset shows the interior of the sockets, with irregular fragments of metal visible at the base of the broached area. Although difficult to see in the photograph, the "teeth" show some chatter marks from the broaching operation.

Of the ten 1/2-drive sockets in the N696 set, four sockets (with sizes 7/16, 11/16, 7/8, and 15/16) are of older cold-broached construction. These are presumed to have been earlier production remaining in inventory when the set was assembled.


[Indestro] 1/2-Drive Hot-Broached Sockets from N696 Set

[Indestro Hot-Broached Sockets from N696 Set]
Fig. 415. Indestro 1/2-Drive Hot-Broached Sockets from N696 Set, with Insets for Bottom and Top View, ca. 1935.

Fig. 415 shows a group of three 1/2-drive hot-broached sockets from the N696 set, with sizes from the left 21/32, 3/4, and 13/16. The sockets are stamped with "Chromium Vanadium" and the fractional size on the base.

The sockets are designed with tapered upper walls and have two bands of simple knurling around the base. The finish is a mix of polished chrome on the upper walls and cadmium plating on the lower walls.

The top inset shows the drive end of the sockets, illustrating the tapered edges of the square opening. These tapered edges make it easier to insert a drive tool by helping to depress the friction ball. Duro's hot-broaching process used a specially shaped mandrel to taper the edges of the drive end during broaching.

The lower inset shows the interior of the sockets. Note the annular shelf of displaced metal visible at the base of the broached area, a characteristic of Duro's hot-broaching process.


ChromeXQuality

The "ChromeXQuality" marking was a mystery for quite a while, as a number sockets and drive tools of apparent Duro production had been found, but no information on the mark could be located. This mark has now been identified as a brand used by Western Auto during the late 1930s. A 1937 Western Auto catalog shows many examples of the ChromeXQuality brand, sometimes written as "Chrome-X Quality" or just "Chrome-X". This brand was their top-of-the-line at the time, and the catalog notes that these tools were made of chrome-molybdenum or chrome-vanadium steels. Western Auto offered a lifetime free replacement guarantee for ChromeXQuality tools.

Based on Western Auto historical sources, the ChromeXQuality mark first appeared in 1936. The line of tools proved successful, but in 1940 Western Auto switched to the "Wizard" brand name for their top-tier tools. The relatively short usage interval for ChromeXQuality is actually fortunate for us, as it allows the manufacturing date to be estimated as 1936-1939 for tools with this mark.

Most of the known examples of ChromeXQuality tools can be readily identified as Duro/Indestro or Vlchek production, and recently Herbrand was identified as a third producer. Other producers may have been used as well, particularly for certain specialty tools.

Additional information can be found in the section on ChromeXQuality in our article on Western Auto Supply.


ChromeXQuality N693 1/2-Drive Socket Set

[ChromeXQuality N693 1/2-Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 416. ChromeXQuality N693 1/2-Drive Socket Set, ca. 1936-1937.

Fig. 416 shows an early ChromeXQuality N693 1/2-drive socket set, consisting of a flex-head handle and eight double-hex sockets.

The set is marked with a decal on the inside cover, displaying the ChromeXQuality brand with "Deluxe Vanadium Steel Tools", and with "Western Auto Supply Co." at the bottom.

The socket sizes are, from right to left, 7/16, 1/2, 9/16, 19/32, 5/8, 21/32, 11/16, 3/4, and 13/16. Each socket is marked with "ChromeXQuality" and "Vanadium Steel", but without a model number.

The flex handle is marked with "Chromium Vanadium" on the shank.

The set is contained in a sturdy metal case with a divider to keep the sockets in place. The dimensions are 12.4 inches long by 2.8 inches deep by 2.1 inches high.

The set as acquired was missing the 7/16, 1/2, 11/16, and 3/4 sockets, and also included an extra 1-1/16 socket of the same style. The missing sizes have been replaced from inventory with sockets of the same style and markings.

The set is not marked with a model number, but the N693 model and standard contents were identified by reference to the Western Auto Supply catalogs for 1936 and 1937. The 1936 catalog referred to this model as the "Beginner's Socket Set", but by 1937 it was being called the "Auto Owner's Set".


ChromeXQuality 1/2-Drive Double-Hex Sockets

[ChromeXQuality 1/2-Drive Double-Hex Sockets]
Fig. 417. ChromeXQuality 1/2-Drive Double-Hex Sockets, with Inset for Broaching, ca. 1936-1937.

Fig. 417 shows the three largest 1/2-drive double-hex sockets from the ChromeXQuality N693 socket set. The sizes are, from right to left, 11/16, 3/4, and 13/16.

The sockets are stamped with "Chrome X Quality" and "Vanadium Steel" plus the fractional size, but without a model number. The finish is chrome plating.

The sockets have a distinctive and functional design, with a raised band of cross-hatched knurling at the bottom to assist with hand turning. The markings are placed in a polished band at the base bracketed by narrow troughs, which contrasts nicely with the matte finish of the tapered upper walls.

The upper inset shows the interiors of the sockets. Note the ring of material at the base of the broaching, a characteristic of Duro's Hot-Broaching Process.

The distinctive socket design and lack of model numbers indicate earlier production, likely 1936-1937. Later ChromeXQuality sockets had the same design and model numbers as the standard Indestro production of the time.


ChromeXQuality 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handles

The next two figures show examples of 1/2-drive flex handles supplied with ChromeXQuality sets, beginning with the tool from the N693 set.

[Chromium Vanadium 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle from N693 Set]
Fig. 418. Chromium Vanadium 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle from N693 Set, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1936-1937.

Fig. 418 shows the 1/2-drive flex-head handle from the ChromeXQuality N693 set, marked with "Chromium Vanadium" stamped on the shank.

The overall length is 11.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The flex handle is equipped with a fixed male drive stud on the handle end, allowing it to be used as an extension with a female-drive ratchet. (Female drive ratchets were still quite common in the mid to late 1930s, but were being replaced by male drive tools.) In addition to the male drive stud, the handle has a cross-bar hole to allow use as a Tee-handle.

This flex handle closely resembles the illustration in a 1937 Western Auto catalog, and is basically identical to the standard Indestro 3221 flex handle of that period. An example of the Indestro model can be seen as the Indestro "Chromium-Vanadium" 3221 Flex Handle.


[ChromeXQuality 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle]
Fig. 419. ChromeXQuality 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1936-1939.

Fig. 419 shows another example of a 1/2-drive ChromeXQuality flex-head handle, stamped "ChromeXQuality" and "Vanadium Steel" on the shank.

The overall length is 11.6 inches. The finish was originally chrome plating, though much has now worn off; a close look at the photograph shows that this tool has led a hard life.

As with the previous example, the handle of this tool is equipped with both a cross-bar hole and a 1/2-drive stud. These features allow use as a Tee-handle (with a cross-bar) and as an extension with a female-drive ratchet. (Female drive ratchets were still quite common in the mid to late 1930s.)


ChromeXQuality N694 1/2-Drive Socket Set

This next figure shows a ChromeXQuality N694 socket set, similar to the N693 set but with several more drive tools.

[ChromeXQuality N694 1/2-Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 420. ChromeXQuality N694 1/2-Drive Socket Set, ca. 1938-1939.

Fig. 420 shows a ChromeXQuality N694 1/2-drive socket set, consisting of a ratchet, a screwdriver bit/drive plug, a 10 inch extension, and eight double-hex sockets ranging from 7/16 to 13/16.

The set is marked with a decal on the inside cover, displaying the ChromeXQuality brand with "Deluxe Vanadium Steel Tools", and with "Western Auto Supply Co." at the bottom.

The socket models and sizes are, from the right, 1214 (7/16), 1216 (1/2), 1218 (9/16), 19/32, 1220 (5/8), 21/32, 1222 (11/16), 1224 (3/4), and 1226 (13/16).

All except two of the sockets are marked with "Chromium Vanadium" plus a 12xx model number and fractional size. The two exceptions, 19/32 and 21/32, are in the older style without model numbers and are marked "ChromeXQuality" and "Vanadium Steel".

The ratchet is unmarked except for a patent number, but is the standard Indestro No. 3202 Ratchet as supplied for contract production. The No. 3211 10 inch extension is stamped "Chromium Vanadium" and "Made in U.S.A." around the shank.

The set as acquired was complete except for the 19/32 socket, which we replaced from inventory to match the style of the 21/32 socket. In addition, the set came with an extra tool, a No. 3206 Sliding Tee Handle marked "Chromium Vanadium".

The set is contained in a sturdy metal box with a spot-welded divider to secure the sockets. The dimensions are 11.1 inches long by 4.5 inches deep by 1.8 inches high.


Indestro [No. 3202] 1/2-Drive Ratchet from N694 Set

[Indestro No. 3202 1/2-Drive Ratchet from N694 Set]
Fig. 421. Indestro [No. 3202] 1/2-Drive Ratchet from N694 Set, with Inset for Side View, ca. 1938-1939.

Fig. 421 shows the Indestro [No. 3202] 1/2-drive ratchet and drive plug from the ChromeXQuality N694 set, marked with "Pat. No. 1,902,878" on the cover plate.

The overall length is 9.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The forged body, pressed-flange construction, and patent marking identify this as a standard Indestro No. 3202 Ratchet, which was typically unmarked (except for the patent notice) when supplied as contract production.

The patent marking refers to patent #1,902,878, filed by McNaught and Peterson in 1932 and issued in 1933. The patent describes a method of assembling a ratchet by crimping the flanges of the forged body, avoiding the need for screws to secure the cover plates.

This ratchet has a relatively coarse 16-tooth drive gear, which was typical for early production.


Indestro "Chromium Vanadium" No. 3211 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension

[Indestro Chromium Vanadium No. 3211 1/2-Drive Extension]
Fig. 422. Indestro "Chromium Vanadium" No. 3211 1/2-Drive Extension, with Inset for marking Detail, ca. 1938-1939.

Fig. 422 shows the Indestro No. 3211 1/2-drive 10 inch extension from the ChromeXQuality N694 set, stamped with "Chromium Vanadium" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank, as seen in the composite inset.

The overall length is 9.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

Although not marked with the company name, the No. 3211 extension was listed in the 1937 Indestro catalog as part of Indestro's "Super Quality" line of chrome-vanadium tools.


Indestro "Chromium Vanadium" No. 3206 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Handle

[Indestro Chromium Vanadium No. 3206 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Handle]
Fig. 423. Indestro "Chromium Vanadium" No. 3206 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Handle, with Inset for marking Detail, ca. Late 1930s.

Fig. 423 shows the Indestro No. 3206 1/2-drive sliding Tee handle acquired with (but not a standard part of) the ChromeXQuality N694 set. The shank is stamped with the model number and "Made in U.S.A.", with "Chromium Vanadium" on the sliding head.

The overall length is 10.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

Although not marked with the company name, the No. 3206 sliding Tee handle was listed in the 1937 Indestro catalog as part of Indestro's "Super Quality" line of chrome-vanadium tools.


ChromeXQuality N705 3/8-Drive Socket Set

[ChromeXQuality N705 3/8-Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 424. ChromeXQuality N705 3/8-Drive Socket Set, ca. 1938-1939.

Fig. 424 shows a ChromeXQuality N705 3/8-drive socket set with most of its original sockets, but missing several drive tools. The decal on the inside cover reads "Deluxe ChromeXQuality Vanadium Steel Tools" with "Western Auto Supply Co." at the bottom.

The original contents included a ratchet, a flex handle, an extension, a screwdriver bit, seven double-hex sockets, and three double-square sockets. The set as acquired had all of the sockets except for the 9/16 double-hex size, but included only the ratchet as a drive tool.

The hex socket models and sizes are, from the left, 2712 (3/8), 2714 (7/16), 2716 (1/2), 2718 (9/16, missing), 2720 (5/8), 2722 (11/16), and 2724 (3/4).

The model number for the set was identified by reference to the 1938 Western Auto catalog. The tools in the set are not marked with the ChromeXQuality brand, but carry the standard markings for the Indestro "Super Quality" line of the late 1930s. This is believed to indicate a later production date for the set; in order to keep costs down, socket sets for Western Auto were filled from standard Indestro production, leaving only the decal to indicate the specific brand.

The dimensions of the box (in inches) are 9.5 long by 3.2 wide by 1.3 high.


Chromium Vanadium 27xx 3/8-Drive Double-Hex Sockets

[Chromium Vanadium 27xx Sockets from ChromeXQuality N705 3/8-Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 425. Chromium Vanadium 27xx Sockets from ChromeXQuality N705 3/8-Drive Socket Set, ca. 1938-1939.

Fig. 425 shows the double-hex sockets from the ChromeXQuality N705 set, all marked "Chromium Vanadium" with model numbers and the fractional sizes.

The model numbers and sizes are, from the left, 2712 (3/8), 2714 (7/16), 2716 (1/2), 2720 (5/8), 2722 (11/16), and 2724 (3/4). One socket is missing from the set, the model 2718 9/16 size.

Based on the model numbers and markings on the sockets, these are the standard 3/8-drive sockets offered by Indestro as part of its "Super Quality" product line in the late 1930s.


Chromium Vanadium 2724 3/8-Drive 3/4 Double-Hex Socket

[Chromium Vanadium 2724 3/8-Drive 3/4 Socket]
Fig. 426. Chromium Vanadium 2724 3/8-Drive 3/4 Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail.

Fig. 426 shows more detail for the 2724 3/4 socket in the above figure. The interior of the socket (see right inset) illustrates the typical hot-broached construction used by Duro/Indestro from 1935 onward.


Indestro No. 2888 3/8-Drive Ratchet

[Indestro No. 2888 3/8-Drive Ratchet from ChromeXQuality N705 Set]
Fig. 427. Indestro No. 2888 3/8-Drive Ratchet from ChromeXQuality N705 Set, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1938-1939.

Fig. 427 at the left shows the Indestro No. 2888 3/8-drive ratchet from the N705 set, marked "Made in U.S.A." and "Pat. No. 1,902,878" on the cover plate, with "No. 2888" on the reverse (see lower inset).

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

As was often the case for contract production, the ratchet is not marked with a company name or brand, but can be readily identified as Indestro production by the pressed-flange construction and #1,902,878 patent notice. In addition, the model No. 2888 is listed as a 3/8-drive ratchet in the Indestro Super Quality (later Indestro Super) product line.

Other examples of ratchets made with the pressed-flange construction method include the Duro No. 678D Ratchet and Indestro No. 3202 Ratchet.


ChromeXQuality 3/4-Drive 1-3/8 12-Point Socket

This next figure shows a rare example of a 3/4-drive ChromeXQuality socket, currently the only one we've found.

[ChromeXQuality 3/4-Drive 12-Point Ratchet]
Fig. 428. ChromeXQuality 3/4-Drive 12-Point Socket, with Inset for Top View, ca. 1936-1939.

Fig. 428 shows a ChromeXQuality 3/4-drive 1-3/8 socket, stamped with "ChromeXQuality" and the fractional size.

The inset shows the broached interior of the socket. Note the annular shelf of displaced metal at the base of the broached area, a characteristic of Duro's Hot-Broaching Process.

One wall of the drive end of the socket can be seen in the inset, and an oval indentation is visible in the center of the wall. (All four walls have indentations.) These indentations give the friction ball of a drive stud a better grip on the socket, and probably would have required an extra machining step.

The drive end of this socket (not shown) has sharp edges at the drive opening, a somewhat unexpected finding given that relieved edges were easy to add during hot broaching. Our explanation for this is somewhat subtle and begins by noting that the drive-end indentations were likely formed by cutting a groove in the drive end while the socket blank was still on the screw machine. But if the drive end had then been hot-broached, the hot metal flow from the broaching would have filled in the indentations.

Thus even though the service opening was hot-broached, the drive end had to be cold-broached to preserve the indentations, resulting in a drive opening with sharp edges. Additional discussion of this curious mix of cold and hot broaching can be found with the Super-Quality [2248] 3/4-Drive Socket.

The existence of this socket is highly significant, as it shows that Western Auto Supply actually ordered private-branded 3/4-drive tools from their contract vendors. We haven't found any Western Auto catalog listings for heavy-duty 3/4-drive tools, but have hypothesized that they were available on special order. If Western Auto ordered contract production of the tools, that suggests that there were special catalogs showing such items.


ChromeXQuality 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench

[ChromeXQuality 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 429. ChromeXQuality 1027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1936-1939.

Fig. 429 shows a ChromeXQuality 1027 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, stamped with "Vanadium Steel" and the model number on the front faces, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is nickel or chrome plating.

The use of the "Forged in U.S.A." marking along a curved arc identifies this wrench as Duro production.


ChromeXQuality 3/8x7/16 Offset Box-End Wrench

The 1937 Western Auto catalog listed a group of six deep offset box-end wrenches in their ChromeXQuality brand, with sizes ranging from 3/8x7/16 up to 15/16x1. The text noted that they were chrome-molybdenum or chrome-vanadium steel, and were offered with a lifetime free replacement guarantee. We have acquired several examples of these wrenches, all of Duro/Indestro production, as the following figures will show.

[ChromeXQuality 3/8x7/16 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 430. ChromeXQuality 3/8x7/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1936-1939.

Fig. 430 shows a ChromeXQuality 3/8x7/16 offset box-end wrench with raised parallelogram panels, stamped with "ChromeXQuality" and the fractional sizes on the front panel, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends and panels.

The wrench can be identified as Duro/Indestro production by the design of the box-end forgings and general construction, the raised parallelogram panels, and the use of a slanted font for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking.


ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench

[ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 431. ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1936-1939.

Fig. 431 shows a ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 offset box-end wrench with raised parallelogram panels, stamped with "ChromeXQuality" and the fractional sizes on the front panel, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends and panels.

The wrench can be identified as Duro/Indestro production by the design of the box-end forgings and general construction, as well as the use of the slanted script for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" mark.


ChromeXQuality 5/8x11/16 Offset Box-End Wrench

[ChromeXQuality 5/8x11/16 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 432. ChromeXQuality 5/8x11/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1936-1939.

Fig. 432 shows a ChromeXQuality 5/8x11/16 offset box-end wrench with raised parallelogram panels, stamped with "ChromeXQuality" and the fractional sizes on the front panel, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the reverse.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends and panels.

The wrench can be identified as Duro/Indestro production by the design of the box-end forgings and general construction, as well as the use of the slanted script for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" mark.

Western Auto offered these wrenches at extremely attractive prices, ranging from $0.42 for the 3/8x7/16 size to $0.69 for the 15/16x1. By comparison, the 1938 Duro-Chrome catalog listed prices of $0.90 and $1.95 for their "Handy-Twin-Hex" equivalent wrenches (models 2051 and 2056 respectively.)


ChromeXQuality 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench

[ChromeXQuality 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 433. ChromeXQuality 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1936-1939.

Fig. 433 shows a similar ChromeXQuality 3/4x25/32 offset wrench with raised parallelogram panels, stamped with "ChromeXQuality" and the fractional sizes on the front panel, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the reverse.

The overall length is 11.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plate with polished ends and panels.

The wrench can be identified as Duro/Indestro production by the design of the box-end forgings and general construction, as well as the use of the slanted script for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" mark.


ChromeXQuality 15/16x1 Offset Box-End Wrench

[ChromeXQuality 15/16x1 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 434. ChromeXQuality 15/16x1 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1936-1939.

In Fig. 434 we see the largest of the group of wrenches, a ChromeXQuality 15/16x1 offset box wrench with raised parallelogram panels, stamped with "ChromeXQuality" and the fractional sizes on the front panel, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the reverse.

The overall length is 14.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends and panels, with some finish loss and pitting due to rust.

The wrench can be identified as Duro/Indestro production by the design of the box-end forgings and general construction, as well as the use of the slanted script for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" mark.


ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 Box-End Wrench

The ChromeXQuality line also included straight box wrenches, as the next figure illustrates.

[ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 435. ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1936-1939.

Fig. 435 shows a ChromeXQuality 1/2x9/16 box-end wrench with raised parallelogram panels, stamped with "ChromeXQuality" and the fractional sizes on the front panel, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends and faces.

The wrench can be identified as Duro production by the design and construction, and the use of a slanted font for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking.


ChromeXQuality 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench

[ChromeXQuality 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 436. ChromeXQuality 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1936-1939.

Fig. 436 shows a ChromeXQuality 3/4x7/8 box-end wrench with raised parallelogram panels, stamped with "ChromeXQuality" and the fractional sizes on the front panel, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the reverse.

The overall length is 11.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends and faces.

The wrench can be identified as Duro production by the design and construction, and the use of a slanted font for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking.


Wizard and Westcraft

Wizard and Westcraft were registered trademarks of the Western Auto Supply Company, and both marks were used for a line of hand tools. Duro/Indestro was a major supplier for these lines, as was Vlchek Tool of Cleveland and possibly other companies. (See our article on Vlchek Contract Production for more information.) The Duro tools known to be sourced for Western Auto include ratchets, sockets, drive tools, tappet wrenches, and some double-box wrenches.

The Wizard brand was the immediate successor of the ChromeXQuality mark shown previously, and was generally (or exclusively) used for their top-quality tools.


Wizard H2833 1/2-Drive Ratchet

[Wizard H2833 1/2-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 437. Wizard H2833 1/2-Drive Ratchet, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 437 shows a Wizard H2833 1/2-drive fine-tooth ratchet, stamped with a small "D" and "Wizard" on the handle in the top image, with "Forged in U.S.A." in the bottom image.

The overall length is 10.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating

The ratchet mechanism is marked with patent #2,686,582, issued in 1954 to Odlum and Hosford of Duro Metal Products. (This patent will be seen on most of the Duro and Indestro fine-tooth ratchets.)

A check of the Indestro catalog for 1964 shows that this closely resembles the model 3277 ratchet. A similar model 3275 ratchet was available with a knurled handle.


Wizard H2178 Tappet Wrench

[Wizard H2178 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 438. Wizard H2178 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench, with Insets for Reverse.

Fig. 438 shows a Wizard model H2178 5/8x11/16 tappet wrench. The reverse is marked "Alloy Steel" and "Forged in U.S.A.", and the overall length is 8.4 inches. The wrench is finished in a bright chrome plate.

The particular identifying marks for Duro/Indestro include the small "D" next to the Wizard brand, and the "Forged in U.S.A." notation on a curved arc, as seen in the inset.


Wizard HR2192 Box-End Wrench

[Wizard HR2192 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 439. Wizard HR2192 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 439 shows a Wizard model HR2192 1/2x9/16 offset double-box wrench, stamped with "Wizard" and the model number with a small "D" code at the left, with "Alloy Steel" and "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 5.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

The identification as Duro/Indestro production relies on the "D" code and the construction details, as the modern Duro/Indestro wrench design no longer included the distinctive "streamline" motif.


Westcraft 19/32x11/16 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Westcraft 19/32x11/16 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 440. Westcraft 19/32x11/16 Deep Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 440 shows a Westcraft 19/32x11/16 deep offset box wrench, marked "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.4 inches.

Although not marked with the small "D" notation, this wrench can be clearly identified as Duro/Indestro production by the streamlined raised panel, a motif previously seen on many examples.


Westcraft HR2820 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle

[Westcraft HR2820 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle]
Fig. 441. Westcraft HR2820 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle, ca. 1943-1945.

Fig. 441 shows a 1/2-drive Westcraft HR2820 flex-head handle. The knurled handle has a cross-bar hole, and the end is broached for 1/2-drive.

The overall length is 12.0 inches. The finish is plain steel, indicating that this tool was likely manufactured in 1943-1945.

The distinctive head shape marks this as Duro/Indestro production, and the closest models are the Duro-chrome 666D and Indestro 3221. However, these models were made with male drive studs on the end at least until 1941; the Westcraft female broach may have been a special order, or possibly the models had been changed by then. (The mid 1950s catalogs show the Duro-chrome 666D flex handle with a female broach.)


Westline 0725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench

Western Auto also sold tools under the "Westline" brand, typically used for lower priced "economy" tools.

[Westline 0725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 442. Westline 0725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 442 shows a Westline 0725B 1/2x9/16 open-end wrench with streamlined depressed panels, marked with "Westline" and a "D" code forged into the shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 5.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Westline "Select Steel" 1076 11/16 Combination Wrench

[Westline 1076 11/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 443. Westline 1076 11/16 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Mid 1950s to 1960s.

Fig. 443 shows a Westline 1076 11/16 combination wrench with streamlined depressed panels, marked with "Forged Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the reverse panel.

The wrench is also marked with the model number forged into the front face, with "Westline" stamped on the reverse face.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

This wrench is an example of Duro/Indestro's "Select Steel" line of economy tools. Additional examples can be seen in the section on the "Select Steel" Brand.


Riverside

[Riverside Decal from Compact Utility Socket Set]
Fig. 444. Riverside Decal from "Compact Utility" Socket Set, ca. 1935-1936.

Riverside was a trademark of Montgomery Ward and was used for a variety of automobile-related supplies and products, beginning in 1912. At some point automobile tools were offered as well, and some of the collected examples of Riverside tools are clearly of Duro/Indestro production. It's not known which other companies may have sourced tools as well.

A 1935 Montgomery Ward catalog shows a number of socket sets and tools of likely Duro production. The illustration for a 35-piece Chrome-Vanadium socket set shows a Duro-style ratchet, with sockets matching the Ward's Riverside examples. The catalog also shows box-end wrenches that closely resemble the examples in the next figures.


Riverside 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench

[Riverside 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 445. Riverside 1/2x9/16 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 445 shows a Riverside 1/2x9/16 offset box wrench with raised oval panels, stamped with "Riverside" between two decorative triangles on the front panel, and with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" and the fractional sizes on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

Production by Duro/Indestro is indicated by the use of a slanted font for "Chrome Vanadium Steel", as well as the hexagonal shank and general construction of the wrench.


Riverside 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrenches

[Riverside 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 446. Riverside 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 446 shows a Riverside 3/4x25/32 offset box wrench, marked with decorative triangles (meaning unknown) on a raised panel, and with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" on the reverse panel.

The overall length is 11.2 inches, and the finish is a heavy cadmium plating.

Production by Duro/Indestro is indicated by the use of a slanted font for "Chrome Vanadium Steel", as well as the hexagonal shank and general construction of the wrench.

[Riverside 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 447. Riverside 3/4x25/32 Offset Box-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail.

Fig. 447 shows another Riverside 3/4x25/32 offset box wrench, similar to the previous example but without raised panels on the shank. The wrench is stamped with decorative triangles on the front with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the reverse.

The overall length is 11.2 inches. The finish is a chrome or possibly nickel plate with a yellowish tint, now worn through in places.

As with the previous example, production by Duro/Indestro is indicated by the general construction and the use of a slanted font for "Chrome Vanadium Steel".


Riverside "Compact Utility" 1/2-Drive Socket Set

The 1935 Montgomery Ward catalog offered a number of socket sets in both chrome-vanadium steel and in carbon steel. Based on the illustrations, all of the sets (with one possible exception) were made by Duro/Indestro.

[1935 Catalog Listing for Montgomery Ward Compact Utility Socket Set]
Fig. 448. 1935 Catalog Listing for Montgomery Ward "Compact Utility" Socket Set.

The scan in Fig. 448 shows a listing for a "Compact Utility" socket set, as found on page 460 of the 1935 Montgomery Ward Spring-Summer catalog No. 122. This set included both 1/2-drive and 1/4-drive components.

The text lists the 1/2-drive parts as a ratchet, a sliding Tee handle, an extension, and nine double-hex sockets. The 1/4-drive parts are listed as a flex handle and nine sockets, but the illustration shows only eight sockets.

The text notes that the set was supplied with a steel box measuring 13-7/8 by 5-3/4 by 1-5/8 inches, complete with a carrying handle.

We acquired a set that closely matches the illustration and which carries a decal for the Riverside brand, a trademark used by Montgomery Ward. Our set was missing the 1/4-drive components, but had most of the specified 1/2-drive parts, including a few extras. The ratchet and sockets in the set identify the set as Duro/Indestro production, and the sockets are a mix of cold-broached and hot-broached construction, providing a 1935-1936 manufacturing date estimate for the set.

[Riverside Compact Utility 1/2-Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 449. Riverside "Compact Utility" 1/2-Drive Socket Set, ca. 1935-1936.

Fig. 449 shows a rare Riverside "Compact Utility" socket set retaining most of its original 1/2-drive parts, but missing the 1/4-drive components.

The set as pictured consists of a forged-body ratchet with its drive plug, a sliding Tee handle, an extension, a universal, and eight 1/2-drive double-hex sockets.

The socket sizes are, from the left, 7/16, 1/2, 9/16, 5/8, 21/32, 3/4, 15/16, and 1 inch. The sockets are all marked "Ward's" and "Chromium Vanadium" with the fractional size.

Based on the catalog listing, the set appears to be missing the 11/16 and 13/16 sockets and has an extra 7/16 socket. In addition, the former owner has added a model 3217 universal.

[Top Cover of Ward's Riverside Compact Utility Set]
Fig. 450. Top Cover of Ward's Riverside "Compact Utility" Set, ca. 1935-1936.

Fig. 450 shows the top cover of the Ward's Riverside "Compact Utility" set, conveniently fitted with a sturdy handle.

The brown metal box measures 14.1 inches long by 5.9 inches wide by 1.7 inches high.

A careful look at the sockets in the photograph shows that the largest socket was cold-broached, but the others were made using Duro's patented Hot-Broaching Process. Duro filed its patent for socket construction in 1935 and received patent #2,027,922 in 1936, suggesting a 1935-1936 production date for the set.


Duro 1/2-Drive Pressed-Flange Ratchet from Riverside "Compact Utility" Socket Set

[Duro 1/2-Drive Forged-Body Ratchet from Riverside Compact Utility Set]
Fig. 451. Duro 1/2-Drive Pressed-Flange Ratchet from Riverside "Compact Utility" Set, ca. 1935-1936.

Fig. 451 shows the Duro 1/2-drive pressed-flange ratchet and drive plug from the Riverside "Compact Utility" set.

The ratchet is marked with patent #1,902,878 on the cover plate, a reference to the well-known Duro patent for pressed-flange ratchet construction.

The overall length is 10.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The ratchet mechanism has a 16-tooth drive gear, a relatively coarse pitch consistent with an early production date.

The forged body of the ratchet closely matches the illustration in the Montgomery Ward catalog. Note that the design is distinct from the well-known Duro 678D or Indestro 3202 models, indicating that Montgomery Ward was a sufficiently important customer to warrant a custom forging die for the ratchet handle.


Ward's "Chromium Vanadium" 1/2-Drive Sockets from "Compact Utility" Set

[Wards 1/2-Drive Sockets from Compact Utility Set]
Fig. 452. Wards "Chromium Vanadium" 1/2-Drive Sockets from "Compact Utility" Set, ca. 1935-1936.

Fig. 452 shows the two largest Ward's "Chromium Vanadium" 1/2-drive sockets from the "Compact Utility" set.

The sizes are 15/16 at the left and 1 inch at the right, and both sockets are stamped "Ward's" and "Chromium Vanadium" on the base.

The socket on the left has a scalloped ring of displaced metal, a characteristic of Duro's patented hot-broached construction. The socket on the right though has only small bits of metal at the base of the broached area, indicating cold-broached construction.


Ward's Riverside "Chromium Vanadium" 1/2-Drive Sockets

Some of the production for the Riverside brand was marked with both "Ward's" and "Riverside", as the next figure illustrates.

[Ward's Riverside Chromium Vanadium 1/2-Drive Sockets]
Fig. 453. Ward's Riverside "Chromium Vanadium" 1/2-Drive Sockets, with Inset for Top View, ca. Mid to Late 1930s.

Fig. 453 shows two Ward's Riverside "Chromium Vanadium" 1/2-drive double-hex sockets, with sizes 1-1/16 on the left and 1-1/8 on the right.

The sockets are marked "Ward's Riverside" and "Chromium Vanadium" with the fractional size, and the finish is chrome plating.

The top inset shows the interior of the sockets, illustrating the hot-broached construction with a scalloped ring of displaced metal.

These sockets were acquired separately rather than as part of a set, but are very similar to the Ward's "Chromium Vanadium" sockets from the Riverside "Compact Utility" set. The inclusion of the "Riverside" brand on the sockets probably indicates later production.


Ward's Master Quality

Montgomery Ward used the "Master Quality" brand for its top grade of tools, and Duro/Indestro have been identified as one of the suppliers of Master Quality tools.


Ward's Master Quality 84-4783 1/2-Drive Reversible Ratchet

[Wards Master Quality 1/2-Drive Reversible Ratchet]
Fig. 454. Ward's Master Quality 84-4783 1/2-Drive Reversible Ratchet, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1930s to 1940s.

Fig. 454 shows a Ward's Master Quality 84-4783 1/2-drive reversible ratchet, stamped with the Ward's "M|W" logo and model number on the cover plate, with "Wards Master Quality" forged into the handle.

The reverse cover plate is stamped "Pat. No. 1,902,878", with "Wards Master Quality" forged into the reverse handle.

The overall length is 10.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The patent notice refers to patent #1,902,878, issued in 1933 to McNaught and Peterson with assignment to Duro Metal Products.

The ratchet mechanism has a 36-tooth drive gear, a much finer pitch than the earlier ratchet models.


Powr-Kraft

In the 1930s Montgomery Ward offered a broad line of power tools under the "Powr-Kraft" trademark, and in later years the brand was extended to include hand tools. Duro was one of the manufacturers selected to supply sockets and drive tools for the Powr-Kraft line, as the next figure illustrates.


Powr-Kraft 1/2-Drive Sockets

[Powr-Kraft 1/2-Drive 12-Point Sockets]
Fig. 455. Powr-Kraft 1/2-Drive 12-Point Sockets, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail.

Fig. 455 shows a group of 1/2-drive Powr-Kraft 12-point sockets, each marked "Powr-Kraft 100" and "84-4865" with a small "D" code.

The sizes are, from the left, 9/16, 5/8, 11/16, and 15/16.


Cross Country

Another name occasionally seen on older tools is the "Cross Country" (or "Cross-Country") brand. Currently most (or perhaps all) of the known examples appear to have been made by Duro or Indestro, and the general time frame appears to be the 1930s or early 1940s.

Based on our research, the Cross Country tools are believed to have been made for Sears Roebuck. The Sears catalogs used the Cross Country brand extensively for various automotive supplies and accessories, including such items as oil, grease, polishing wax, batteries, and tire pressure gauges. Catalog listings for the brand are known from 1919 (or earlier) through at least the 1940s.

Our suspicions regarding the origin of Cross Country tools were finally confirmed by the discovery of tool listings for this brand in the 1933 Sears Fall-Winter catalog. This catalog lists Cross Country socket sets and several types of wrenches on page 496 of the automotive supplies section, and the following 1934 Spring-Summer catalog lists Cross Country socket sets and wrenches on page 416.

Since other Sears catalogs from slightly earlier or later didn't offer tools in the Cross Country brand, we can presume that the Cross Country tools were made only for a brief time in 1933 and 1934.


Cross Country 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench

[Cross Country 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench]
Fig. 456. Cross Country 3/4x7/8 Box-End Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1933-1934.

Fig. 456 shows a Cross Country 3/4x7/8 box-end wrench, stamped with "Cross Country" between two geometric symbols, with "Chrome Vanadium Steel" in a slanted font on the reverse.

The overall length is 11.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with traces of chrome plating.

This wrench can be identified as Indestro production by the use of the slanted font for the "Chrome Vanadium Steel" marking. This example is currently the earliest observed usage of the slanted font marking.


Cross Country 1831 3/4x3/4 Angle-Head Obstruction Wrench

[Cross Country 1831 3/4x3/4 Angle-Head Obstruction Wrench]
Fig. 457. Cross Country 1831 3/4x3/4 Angle-Head Obstruction Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1933-1934.

Fig. 457 shows a Cross Country 1831 3/4x3/4 angle-head open-end wrench, often called an obstruction wrench. The wrench is marked "Chrome Vanadium Steel" with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse, as shown in the inset.

The overall length is 7.5 inches.

This wrench is readily identified as Duro production by the model number 1831, listed as a 3/4x3/4 obstruction wrench in the Duro-Chrome catalogs. In addition, the "Forged in U.S.A." marking along a curved arc is a reliable indicator of Duro production.

An example of this model branded for Duro-Chrome can be seen as the Duro-Chrome 1831 Obstruction Wrench.


Cross Country No. 3 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench

[Cross Country No. 3 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 458. Cross Country No. 3 5/8x11/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1933-1934.

Fig. 458 shows a Cross Country No. 3 tappet wrench with size 5/8x11/16, marked "Chrome Vanadium Steel" with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.6 inches.

This wrench can identified as Duro production by the curved-arc "Forged in U.S.A." marking and other construction features. The model number also follows the Duro/Indestro numbering for tappet wrenches; the Duro-Chrome 5/8x11/16 tappet wrench was a D-3, and the corresponding Indestro Super-Quality model was a T-3.


The "Select Steel" Brand

In an earlier section we explored the early Indestro "Chicago" Era of the "Select Steel" line of economy tools. Indestro continued to offer this line in the post-war years, using the same distinctive "Streamlined" design which had been trademarked in 1937. By this time the line of tools had evolved into a "Select Steel" brand, with the Indestro name no longer consistently marked, but implicit via the streamlined design trademark.

By the early 1950s even the "Select Steel" moniker was no longer being marked on the box-end wrenches, although it remained in use in the catalogs. So far it appears that the tools without "Select Steel" markings are at least marked with the standard model numbers for the line, which provide positive identification for the tools.

These tools were widely sold through hardware stores and other channels and were apparently highly successful products, based on the large numbers of tools to be found.

The tools displayed in this section were made over a relatively long period of time, from the mid 1940s through the 1970s (or beyond), and therefore not surprisingly exhibit a range of marking styles and production features. Unfortunately the catalog illustrations for the "Select Steel" line tended to be rather generic, so that in general we don't have the information needed to make fine-grained estimates of production dates from changes in markings or production features.

Our approach here will be to select tools with a wide range of marking and production styles, and where possible make comments on factors suggesting production dates.


Catalog Coverage

Currently our catalog coverage for the "Select Steel" tools in the post-war era is rather limited, as our first Indestro catalog during this period is not until 1956. We have some coverage from the Duro catalogs, but Duro only offered a subset of the "Select Steel" line.

A review of the Indestro (and Duro) catalogs found that the "Select Steel" tools were no longer listed after about 1964, the approximate date of Indestro's catalog No. 22. In addition, our catalogs do not show any listings for the Indestro Select socket tools, even though we have strong evidence that these tools were in production by the early 1960s. However, we have found newspaper advertisements for Indestro Select socket tools into at least the early 1970s.

These observations suggest that Indestro removed the "Select Steel" line from their regular catalogs but continued to offer the tools through some alternate channel, possibly a wholesale catalog directed at hardware stores or other consumer retail outlets. Finding such a catalog would be very helpful in filling in the later history of the tools, and we hope that one will turn up at some point.


Open-End Wrenches

In this section we'll explore the "Select Steel" open-end wrenches in the post-war era. Earlier examples of the line can be in the section on Indestro "Chicago" Open-End wrenches.

Construction and Marking Styles

In reviewing the collected examples of open-end wrenches we have attempted to classify the tools into groups based on construction and marking details. Thus far we have identified four major groups as follows.

The four style groups have been listed in plausible chronological order, although there may have been some overlap.

The one constant through all these changes is that the wrenches retain the streamlined depressed panels forged into both sides.

Finish Options

One of the changes for the post-war period was that finish options were reflected in the actual marked model numbers. In earlier years the catalogs had provided prefix letters for the available finishes, but the wrenches were marked with just the industry-standard model number, regardless of finish. In the later years the observed finishes are chrome plating, indicated by a "P" prefix, and cadmium plating, indicated by a "0" prefix.

By 1956 (or earlier) the standard finish for "Select Steel" open-end wrenches was chrome plating, which was indicated by a "P" prefix in the catalogs and on the wrenches.

Currently we do not have catalog listings showing a cadmium finish option. It's possible that Indestro catalogs from the late 1940s or early 1950s (currently unavailable) may have offered cadmium finishes, or else the observed cadmium-finished wrenches may have been contract production not covered by the catalogs. We have tentatively attributed wrenches with cadmium finishes to the late 1940s to early 1950s, but will update these estimates if better information becomes available.


Indestro "Select Steel" [P/0]720 5/16x11/32 Open-End Wrenches

[Indestro Select Steel 0720 5/16x11/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 459AA. Indestro "Select Steel" 0720 5/16x11/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1950s?

Fig. 459AA shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 0720 5/16x11/32 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with the model number on the reverse left face.

The overall length is 3.7 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

[Indestro Select Steel P720 5/16x11/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 459AB. Indestro "Select Steel" P720 5/16x11/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1960s.

Fig. 459AB shows an Indestro "Select Steel" P720 5/16x11/32 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with "Indestro" and the model number on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 3.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Indestro "Select Steel" No. 21 5/16x13/32 Open-End Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel No. 21 5/16x13/32 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 459B. Indestro "Select Steel" No. 21 5/16x13/32 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1944-1945.

Fig. 459B shows an Indestro "Select Steel" No. 21 5/16x13/32 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with the model number on the reverse left face.

The overall length is 3.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The construction and marking style of this wrench closely resemble the earlier Indestro "Chicago" generation, with "Indestro Chicago-U.S.A." replaced by "Made in U.S.A." on the front panel. (See for example the similar Indestro "Chicago" No. 721 Open-End Wrench.) In particular, the use of a pure industry-standard model number without a finish prefix follows the earlier convention.

This wrench was likely made in the 1944-1945 wartime years and provides evidence of the transition to generic markings during the wartime period.


Indestro "Select Steel" P722 5/16x7/16 Open-End Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel P722 5/16x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 459C. Indestro "Select Steel" P722 5/16x7/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1960s.

Fig. 459C shows an Indestro "Select Steel" P722 5/16x7/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with "Indestro" and the model number on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 3.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Indestro "Select Steel" [P/0]723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show three generations of the Indestro No. 723 3/8x7/16 wrench, beginning with a transitional example from the late wartime period.

[Indestro Select Steel 723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 459D. Indestro "Select Steel" 723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1944-1945.

Fig. 459D shows an early Indestro "Select Steel" No. 723 3/8x7/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with the model number on the reverse left face.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel, possibly with traces of cadmium plating.

The construction and marking style of this wrench closely resemble the earlier Indestro "Chicago" generation, with "Indestro Chicago-U.S.A." replaced by "Made in U.S.A." on the front panel. (See for example the similar Indestro "Chicago" No. 25 Open-End Wrench.) In particular, the use of a pure industry-standard model number without a finish prefix follows the earlier convention.

This wrench was likely made in the 1944-1945 wartime years and provides evidence of the transition to generic markings during the wartime period.

[Indestro Select Steel 0723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 459D. Indestro "Select Steel" 0723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1950s?

Fig. 459D shows a somewhat later Indestro "Select Steel" 0723 3/8x7/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with the model number on the reverse left face.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

[Indestro Select Steel P723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 459E. Indestro "Select Steel" P723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1960s?

Fig. 459E shows a later Indestro "Select Steel" P723 3/8x7/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with the model number on the reverse left face.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Indestro "Select Steel" [P]725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show four generations of the Indestro No. 725B 1/2x9/16 wrench, beginning with a transitional example from the late wartime period.

[Indestro Select Steel 725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 460A. Indestro "Select Steel" 725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1944-1945.

Fig. 460A shows an earlier Indestro "Select Steel" No. 725B 1/2x9/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with the model number on the reverse left face.

The overall length is 5.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The construction and marking style of this wrench closely resemble the earlier Indestro "Chicago" generation, with "Indestro Chicago-U.S.A." replaced by "Made in U.S.A." on the front panel. (See for example the similar Indestro "Chicago" No. 25 Open-End Wrench.) In particular, the use of a pure industry-standard model number without a finish prefix follows the earlier convention.

This wrench was likely made in the 1944-1945 wartime years and provides evidence of the transition to generic markings during the wartime period.

[Indestro Select Steel 0725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 460B. Indestro "Select Steel" 0725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1950s?

Fig. 460B shows a somewhat later Indestro "Select Steel" 0725B 1/2x9/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with "Indestro" and the model number on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 5.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

[Indestro Select Steel P725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 460C. Indestro "Select Steel" P725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1960s.

Fig. 460C shows a somewhat later Indestro "Select Steel" P725B 1/2x9/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with "Indestro" and the model number on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 5.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

[Indestro Select Steel P725B 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 460D. Indestro "Select Steel" [P725B] 1/2x9/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1960s to 1970s?

Fig. 460D shows a later Indestro "Select Steel" [P725B] 1/2x9/16 open-end wrench with forged-in sizes, marked with "Made in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Forged Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 5.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

In this later example the fractional sizes are forged into both sides of the shank, and the company name and model number are not marked.


Indestro ["Select Steel"] P727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro P727 wrench, with differences in the forged-in markings.

[Indestro Select Steel P727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 461A. Indestro "Select Steel" P727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1960s.

Fig. 461A shows an earlier Indestro "Select Steel" P727 9/16x5/8 open-end wrench with streamlined depressed panels, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with "Indestro" and the model number on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 6.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

[Indestro Forged U.S.A. P727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 461B. Indestro "Forged U.S.A." P727 9/16x5/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1970s to 1980s?

Fig. 461B shows a later Indestro P727 9/16x5/8 open-end wrench, marked with "Forged U.S.A." forged into the front panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with the model number and "Indestro" on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 6.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

Note that the heads of this wrench are significantly oversized in relation to the milled opening, suggesting that one forging die was being used to make blanks for several wrench sizes.


Indestro "Select Steel" [P/0]27 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrenches

The next four figures show examples of the "Select Steel" No. 27 19/32x11/16 wrench, with differences in the markings and finish.

[Indestro Select Steel 027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 462A. Indestro "Select Steel" 027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to Mid 1950s?

Fig. 462A shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 027 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with the model number on the reverse left face.

The overall length is 6.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The cadmium finish and unpolished faces suggest production during the late 1940s to mid 1950s.


[Indestro Select Steel 027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 462B. Indestro "Select Steel" 027 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to Mid 1950s?

Fig. 462B shows another Indestro "Select Steel" 027 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with "Indestro" and the model number on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 6.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

This example shows that some wrenches with cadmium finishes were also marked with the Indestro name.

[Indestro Select Steel P27 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 462C. Indestro "Select Steel" P27 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1960s.

Fig. 462C shows an Indestro "Select Steel" P27 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are stamped on the front faces, with "Indestro" and the model number on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 6.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

[Indestro Select Steel 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 462D. Indestro "Select Steel" 19/32x11/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1960s to 1970s?

Fig. 462D shows a later Indestro "Select Steel" [P27] 19/32x11/16 open-end wrench with forged-in sizes, marked with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 6.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

In this later example the fractional sizes are forged into both sides of the shank, and the company name and model number are not marked.


Indestro "Select Steel" P729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro No. 729 5/8x3/4 wrench.

[Indestro Select Steel P729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 463A. Indestro "Select Steel" P729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1960s.

Fig. 463A shows an Indestro "Select Steel" P729 5/8x3/4 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The front faces are stamped with the fractional sizes, with "Indestro" and the model number on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

[Indestro Select Steel P729 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 463B. Indestro "Select Steel" [P729] 5/8x3/4 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1960s to 1970s?

Fig. 463B shows a later Indestro "Select Steel" [P729] 5/8x3/4 open-end wrench with forged-in sizes, marked with "Made in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

In this later example the fractional sizes are forged into both sides of the shank, and the company name and model number are not marked.


Indestro "Select Steel" No. 31 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel No. 31 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 464A. Indestro "Select Steel" No. 31 25/32x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1944-1945.

Fig. 464A shows an Indestro "Select Steel" No. 31 25/32x7/8 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The front faces are stamped with the fractional sizes, with the model number on the left face of the reverse side.

The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The construction and marking style of this wrench closely resemble the earlier Indestro "Chicago" generation, with "Indestro Chicago-U.S.A." replaced by "Made in U.S.A." on the front panel. (See for example the similar Indestro "Chicago" No. 33-B Open-End Wrench.) In particular, the use of a pure industry-standard model number without a finish prefix follows the earlier convention.

This wrench was likely made in the 1944-1945 wartime years and provides evidence of the transition to generic markings during the wartime period.


Indestro "Select Steel" [P/0]731B 13/16x7/8 Open-End Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro No. 731B 13/16x7/8 open-end wrench.

[Indestro Select Steel 0731B 13/16x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 464B. Indestro "Select Steel" 0731B 13/16x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to Mid 1950s?

Fig. 464B shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 0731B 13/16x7/8 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The front faces are stamped with the fractional sizes, with the model number on the reverse left face.

The overall length is 8.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

[Indestro Select Steel P731B 13/16x7/8 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 464C. Indestro "Select Steel" P731B 13/16x7/8 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1960s.

Fig. 464C shows an Indestro "Select Steel" P731B 13/16x7/8 open-end wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The front faces are stamped with the fractional sizes, with "Indestro" and the model number on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 8.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Indestro "Forged U.S.A." 033C 15/16x1 Inch Open-End Wrench

This next figure provides an example of Indestro's late production, with the forged-in markings reduced to just "Forged U.S.A." on one panel.

[Indestro Forged U.S.A. 033C 15/16x1 Inch Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 464D. Indestro "Forged U.S.A." 033C 15/16x1 Inch Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1970s to 1980s?

Fig. 464D shows a later Indestro 033C 15/16x1 inch open-end wrench, marked with "Forged U.S.A." forged into the front panel.

The front faces are stamped with the fractional sizes, with the model number and "Indestro" on the reverse faces.

The overall length is 9.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium or zinc plating.


Open+Box Wrenches

The "open+box" wrench style combined open and box ends of different sizes and became popular in the early 1930s for automobile toolkits. Indestro's early production of this style can be seen in the section on Indestro "Chicago" Open+Box Wrenches.

Note that although the open+box wrenches were assigned 90x catalog numbers from the beginning, the numbers are not known to have been marked on the tools.

As with the other "Select Steel" tools, open+box wrenches were available in sets of various sizes. An example of one of these sets can be seen as the Indestro 900-5A Open+Box Wrench Set.

Construction and Marking Styles

In the post-war era the open+box wrenches remained relatively unchanged for many years. The standard markings were "Made in U.S.A." forged into the streamlined depressed panel on the front, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel, and with the fractional sizes forged into small "size panels" on the reverse.

Later production made minor changes to the markings. The "Made in U.S.A." marking was changed to "Forged U.S.A." on the front panel, with "Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel, replacing the "size panels" of the previous generation.

Finish Options

The standard finish was chrome plating with polished faces, and no other finishes have been observed on the collected examples.


Indestro "Select Steel" 3/8x7/16 Open+Box Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel 3/8x7/16 Open+Box Wrench]
Fig. 465A. Indestro "Select Steel" 3/8x7/16 Open+Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1970s?

Fig. 465A shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 3/8x7/16 open+box wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are forged into small panels on the reverse side.

The overall length is 4.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

This wrench was acquired as part of the Indestro 900-5A Open+Box Wrench Set.


Indestro "Select Steel" 7/16x1/2 Open+Box Wrench

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro 7/16x1/2 open+box wrench.

[Indestro Select Steel 7/16x1/2 Open+Box Wrench]
Fig. 465BA. Indestro "Select Steel" 7/16x1/2 Open+Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1970s?

Fig. 465BA shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 7/16x1/2 open+box wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are forged into small panels on the reverse side.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

This wrench was acquired as part of the Indestro 900-5A Open+Box Wrench Set.

[Indestro Select Steel 7/16x1/2 Open+Box Wrench]
Fig. 465BB. Indestro "Select Steel" 7/16x1/2 Open+Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1970s to 1980s?

Fig. 465BB shows a later Indestro "Select Steel" 7/16x1/2 open+box wrench, marked with "Forged U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 4.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Indestro "Select Steel" 1/2x9/16 Open+Box Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel 1/2x9/16 Open+Box Wrench]
Fig. 465C. Indestro "Select Steel" 1/2x9/16 Open+Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1970s?

Fig. 465C shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 1/2x9/16 open+box wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are forged into small panels on the reverse side.

The overall length is 5.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

This wrench was acquired as part of the Indestro 900-5A Open+Box Wrench Set.


Indestro "Select Steel" 9/16x5/8 Open+Box Wrench

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro 9/16x5/8 open+box wrench.

[Indestro Select Steel 9/16x5/8 Open+Box Wrench]
Fig. 465DA. Indestro "Select Steel" 9/16x5/8 Open+Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1970s?

Fig. 465DA shows an earlier Indestro "Select Steel" 9/16x5/8 open+box wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are forged into small panels on the reverse side.

The overall length is 5.9 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

This wrench was acquired as part of the Indestro 900-5A Open+Box Wrench Set.

[Indestro Select Steel 9/16x5/8 Open+Box Wrench]
Fig. 465DB. Indestro "Select Steel" 9/16x5/8 Open+Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1970s to 1980s?

Fig. 465DB shows a later Indestro "Select Steel" 9/16x5/8 open+box wrench, marked with "Forged U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 5.9 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Indestro "Select Steel" 5/8x3/4 Open+Box Wrench

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro 5/8x3/4 open+box wrench.

[Indestro Select Steel 5/8x3/4 Open+Box Wrench]
Fig. 465EA. Indestro "Select Steel" 5/8x3/4 Open+Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1970s?

Fig. 465EA shows an earlier Indestro "Select Steel" 5/8x3/4 open+box wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are forged into small panels on the reverse side.

The overall length is 6.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

This wrench was acquired as part of the Indestro 900-5A Open+Box Wrench Set.

[Indestro Select Steel 5/8x3/4 Open+Box Wrench]
Fig. 465EB. Indestro "Select Steel" 5/8x3/4 Open+Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1970s to 1980s?

Fig. 465EB shows a later Indestro "Select Steel" 5/8x3/4 open+box wrench, marked with "Forged U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 6.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Indestro "Select Steel" 3/4x7/8 Open+Box Wrench

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro 3/4x7/8 open+box wrench.

[Indestro Select Steel 3/4x7/8 Open+Box Wrench]
Fig. 465F. Indestro "Select Steel" 3/4x7/8 Open+Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Late 1940s to 1970s?

Fig. 465F shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 3/4x7/8 open+box wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The fractional sizes are forged into small panels on the reverse side.

The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

[Indestro Select Steel 3/4x7/8 Open+Box Wrench]
Fig. 465G. Indestro "Select Steel" 3/4x7/8 Open+Box Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1970s to 1980s?

Fig. 465G shows a later Indestro "Select Steel" 3/4x7/8 open+box wrench, marked with "Forged U.S.A." forged into the front panel, with "Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Indestro "Select Steel" 900-5A 5-Piece Open+Box Wrench Set

Indestro offered sets of open+box wrenches of varying sizes, with the tools secured by a bolt and wing-nut.

[Indestro Select Steel 900-5A 5-Piece Open+Box Wrench Set]
Fig. 465Z. Indestro "Select Steel" 900-5A 5-Piece Open+Box Wrench Set, with Inset for Side View, ca. Late 1940s to 1970s?

Fig. 465Z shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 900-5A 5-piece open+box wrench set, stamped "Set No. 900-5A" on the metal clip, with "Indestro Mfg. Corp" and "Chicago U.S.A." on the reverse side (not shown).

The wrench sizes are 3/8x7/16, 7/16x1/2, 1/2x9/16, 9/16x5/8, and 5/8x3/4. Each wrench is marked with "Made in U.S.A." forged into one panel, with "Drop Forged Select Steel" forged into the other panel, and with the sizes forged into small panels.

The overall length is 6.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Box-End Wrenches

The "Select Steel" box wrenches were offered in three styles: short angled, long (standard) offset, and short offset. The table below shows the model numbers and sizes for the wrenches in each style.

Note that although the model numbers were listed in the catalogs from the beginning, the numbers were not marked on tools until later, probably beginning in the late 1940s or early 1950s.

Select Steel Box-End Wrench Models
StyleModelSizesNotes and Examples
Short Angled 919 1/4x5/16 Later production with 6-point openings.
Indestro "Select Steel" [919] Short Angled Box Wrench
  921 3/8x7/16 Later production with 6-point openings.
Indestro Select 921 Short Angled Box Wrench
  922 1/2x9/16 Indestro "Select Steel" [922] Short Angled Box Wrench
  923 5/8x11/16  
  924 3/4x25/32  
  925 13/16x7/8 Indestro 925 Short Angled Box Wrench
Long Offset 911 3/8x7/16 Later production with 6-point openings.
Indestro 911 Offset Box Wrench
  912 1/2x9/16 Indestro 912 Offset Box Wrench
  913 5/8x11/16 Indestro "Select Steel" [913] Offset Box Wrench
  914 3/4x25/32 Indestro "Select Steel" [914] Offset Box Wrench
  915 13/16x7/8 Indestro Select 915 Offset Box Wrench
  916 15/16x1 Inch Indestro 916 Offset Box Wrench
  917 1-1/16x1-1/8  
Short Offset 929 1/4x5/16 Later production with 6-point openings.
  931 3/8x7/16 Later production with 6-point openings.
  932 1/2x9/16 Indestro 932 Short Offset Box Wrench
  933 5/8x11/16 Indestro 933 Short Offset Box Wrench
  934 3/4x25/32 Indestro 934 Short Offset Box Wrench

Construction and Marking Styles

The box wrenches underwent significant changes in the forged-in markings during the post-war years, more so than for the other tool types in the "Select Steel" line. One of the more signficant changes was the relatively early omission of the "Select Steel" marking itself.

We have attempted to categorize the collected examples into groups, with a presumed ordering based on the evolution of the markings.

Finish Options

In the post-war era the only documented finish for box wrenches was chrome plating, and all of the collected examples with post-war marking styles have chrome finishes.

One additional finishing detail is worth mentioning. The Indestro catalogs from around 1956 and 1964 offered box wrench sets with an option for polished or unpolished heads, and the wrenches in this section include examples of both polished and unpolished ends.


Indestro "Select Steel" [No. 919] 1/4x5/16 Short Angled Box Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel No. 919 1/4x5/16 Short Angled Box Wrench]
Fig. 466. Indestro "Select Steel" [No. 919] 1/4x5/16 Short Angled Box Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1944-1945.

Fig. 466 shows an early Indestro "Select Steel" [No. 919] 1/4x5/16 short angled box wrench with streamlined depressed panels, marked with "Made in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 3.7 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The cadmium finish and "Made in U.S.A." marking suggest production during the 1944-1945 wartime years. This wrench provides evidence that the earlier "Indestro - Chicago" marking was discontinued during the wartime years.

An earlier version of this model can be seen as the Indestro "Chicago" 1/4x5/16 Short Angled Box Wrench.


Indestro [Select] No. 921 3/8x7/16 Short Angled Box Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro No. 921 box wrench, beginning with an example of the Indestro Select brand, a brand believed to have been used briefly in the early to mid 1960s.

[Indestro Select No. 921 3/8x7/16 Short Angled Box Wrench]
Fig. 467. Indestro Select No. 921 3/8x7/16 Short Angled Box Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1961 to Mid 1960s.

Fig. 467 shows an Indestro Select No. 921 3/8x7/16 short angled box wrench, marked with "921 Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro Select" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 4.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

This wrench has 6-point openings, a feature of the smaller box wrenches from the mid 1950s (or earlier) onward.

[Indestro No. 921 3/8x7/16 Short Angled Box Wrench]
Fig. 468. Indestro No. 921 3/8x7/16 Short Angled Box Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. Mid 1960s to 1970s?

Fig. 468 shows an Indestro No. 921 3/8x7/16 short angled box wrench, marked with "Forged U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro 921" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 4.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

This wrench has 6-point openings, a feature of the smaller box wrenches from the mid 1950s (or earlier) onward.


Indestro "Select Steel" [No. 922] 1/2x9/16 Short Angled Box Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel No. 922 1/2x9/16 Short Angled Box Wrench]
Fig. 469. Indestro "Select Steel" [No. 922] 1/2x9/16 Short Angled Box Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1944-1945.

Fig. 469 shows an early Indestro "Select Steel" [No. 922] 1/2x9/16 short angled box wrench with streamlined depressed panels, marked with "Made in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Forged Select Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 5.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The cadmium finish and "Made in U.S.A." marking suggest production during the 1944-1945 wartime years. This wrench provides evidence that the earlier "Indestro - Chicago" marking was discontinued during the wartime years.

An earlier version of this model can be seen as the Indestro "Chicago" 1/2x9/16 Short Angled Box Wrench.


Indestro No. 925 13/16x7/8 Short Angled Box Wrench

[Indestro No. 925 13/16x7/8 Short Angled Box Wrench]
Fig. 470. Indestro No. 925 13/16x7/8 Short Angled Box Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. Early 1950s.

Fig. 470 shows an Indestro No. 925 13/16x7/8 short angled box wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Forged No. 925 Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 8.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

This wrench appears to be a transitional form, with the earlier "Forged Select Steel" replaced by "Forged Steel" and the model number, but retaining the "Made in U.S.A." marking on the front panel.


Indestro [Select] No. 911 3/8x7/16 Offset Box Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro No. 911 wrench, including an example of the Indestro Select brand.

[Indestro No. 911 3/8x7/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 471. Indestro No. 911 3/8x7/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1950s to Early 1960s.

Fig. 471 shows an earlier Indestro No. 911 3/8x7/16 offset box wrench with 6-point openings, marked with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro No. 911" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

[Indestro Select No. 911 3/8x7/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 472. Indestro Select No. 911 3/8x7/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1961 to Mid 1960s.

Fig. 472 shows a later Indestro Select No. 911 3/8x7/16 offset box wrench with 6-point openings, marked with "911 Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro Select" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Indestro No. 912 1/2x9/16 Offset Box Wrench

[Indestro No. 912 1/2x9/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 473. Indestro No. 912 1/2x9/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1950s to Early 1960s.

Fig. 473 shows an Indestro No. 912 1/2x9/16 offset box wrench, marked with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro No. 912" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 8.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating, with some losses due to wear.


Indestro ["Select Steel"/Select] No. 913 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrenches

The next figures show three generations of the Indestro No. 913 5/8x11/16 box wrench.

[Indestro Select Steel 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 474A. Indestro "Select Steel" 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1940s.

Fig. 474A shows an earlier Indestro "Select Steel" [No. 913] 5/8x11/16 offset box wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Forged Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

[Indestro No. 913 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 474B. Indestro No. 913 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1950s to Early 1960s.

Fig. 474B shows a slightly later Indestro No. 913 5/8x11/16 offset box wrench, marked with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro No. 913" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

[Indestro Select No. 913 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 474C. Indestro Select No. 913 5/8x11/16 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1961 to Mid 1960s.

Fig. 474C shows a later Indestro Select No. 913 5/8x11/16 offset box wrench, marked with "913 Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro Select" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Indestro ["Select Steel"] No. 914 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrenches

The next figures show three generations of the Indestro No. 914 box wrench.

[Indestro Select Steel No. 914 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 475A. Indestro "Select Steel" [No. 914] 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1940s.

Fig. 475A shows an earlier Indestro "Select Steel" [No. 914] 3/4x25/32 offset box wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Forged Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 11.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

[Indestro No. 914 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 475B. Indestro No. 914 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1950s to Early 1960s.

Fig. 475B shows a somewhat later Indestro No. 914 3/4x25/32 offset box wrench, marked with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro No. 914" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 11.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

[Indestro No. 914 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 475C. Indestro No. 914 3/4x25/32 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Mid 1960s to 1970s.

Fig. 475C shows a later Indestro No. 914 3/4x25/32 offset box wrench, marked with "Forged U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro 914" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 11.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.


Indestro [Select] No. 915 13/16x7/8 Offset Box Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro No. 915 box wrench.

[Indestro Select No. 915 13/16x7/8 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 476A. Indestro Select No. 915 13/16x7/8 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1961 to Mid 1960s.

Fig. 476A shows an earlier Indestro Select No. 915 13/16x7/8 offset box wrench, marked with "915 Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro Select" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 12.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

[Indestro No. 915 13/16x7/8 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 476B. Indestro No. 915 13/16x7/8 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Mid 1960s to 1970s?

Fig. 476B shows a later Indestro No. 915 13/16x7/8 offset box wrench, marked with "Forged U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro 915" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 12.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.


Indestro No. 916 15/16x1 Inch Offset Box Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro No. 916 box wrench.

[Indestro No. 916 15/16x1 Inch Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 477A. Indestro No. 916 15/16x1 Inch Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1950s to Early 1960s.

Fig. 477A shows an earlier Indestro No. 916 15/16x1 Inch offset box wrench, marked with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro No. 916" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 14.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

[Indestro No. 916 15/16x1 Inch Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 477B. Indestro No. 916 15/16x1 Inch Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Mid 1960s to 1970s?

Fig. 477B shows a later Indestro No. 916 15/16x1 Inch offset box wrench, marked with "Forged U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro 916" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 14.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.


Indestro No. 932 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box Wrench

[Indestro No. 932 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 479. Indestro No. 932 1/2x9/16 Short Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1950s to Early 1960s.

Fig. 479 shows an Indestro No. 932 1/2x9/16 short offset box wrench, marked with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro No. 932" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 5.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.


Indestro [Select] No. 933 5/8x11/16 Short Offset Box Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro No. 933 wrench, including an example of the Indestro "Select" brand, a brand used briefly in the early to mid 1960s.

[Indestro No. 933 5/8x11/16 Short Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 480. Indestro No. 933 5/8x11/16 Short Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1950s to Early 1960s.

Fig. 480 shows an earlier Indestro No. 933 5/8x11/16 short offset box wrench with streamlined depressed panels, marked with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro No. 933" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 6.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

[Indestro Select No. 933 5/8x11/16 Short Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 481. Indestro Select No. 933 5/8x11/16 Short Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1961 to Mid 1960s.

Fig. 481 shows a slightly later Indestro Select No. 933 5/8x11/16 short offset box wrench with streamlined depressed panels, marked with "933 FRGD. U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro Select" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 6.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.


Indestro No. 934 3/4x25/32 Short Offset Box Wrenches

The next figures show two generations of the Indestro No. 934 wrench, with differences in the forged-in markings.

[Indestro No. 934 3/4x25/32 Short Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 482. Indestro No. 934 3/4x25/32 Short Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Early 1950s.

Fig. 482 shows an Indestro No. 934 3/4x25/32 short offset box wrench, marked with "Made in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Forged No. 934 Steel" forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 7.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.

This wrench appears to be a transitional form, with the earlier "Forged Select Steel" replaced by "Forged Steel" and the model number, but retaining the "Made in U.S.A." marking on the front panel.

[Indestro No. 934 3/4x25/32 Short Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 483. Indestro No. 934 3/4x25/32 Short Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1950s to Early 1960s.

Fig. 483 shows a slightly later Indestro No. 934 3/4x25/32 short offset box wrench, marked with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Indestro No. 934" and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 7.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished ends.


Combination Wrenches

By 1956 Indestro was offering combination wrenches as part of its "Select Steel" line.

[1956 Catalog Listing for Select Steel Combination Wrenches]
Fig. 484. 1956 Catalog Listing for Select Steel Combination Wrenches.

The scan in Fig. 484 shows a listing for "Select Steel" combination wrenches, as found on page 62 of the 1956 Indestro catalog No. 20.

The wrenches were available in 16 sizes ranging from model 1069 (1/4) up to 1084 (1-1/4). The standard finish was chrome plating with polished faces.

A later catalog extended the wrench sizes to model 1089 (1-5/8).


Indestro "Select Steel" 1069 1/4 Combination Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel 1069 1/4 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 485A. Indestro "Select Steel" 1069 1/4 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Mid 1950s to 1970s.

Fig. 485A shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 1069 1/4 combination wrench, marked with "1069 Select Steel" and the fractional size forged into the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional size forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 3.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Indestro "Select Steel" 1070 5/16 Combination Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel 1070 5/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 485B. Indestro "Select Steel" 1070 5/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. Mid 1950s to 1970s.

Fig. 485B shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 1070 5/16 combination wrench, marked with "Forged Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Made in U.S.A." and the fractional sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The model number is forged into a small "size panel" on the front face.

The overall length is 4.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Indestro "Select Steel" 1072 7/16 Combination Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel 1072 7/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 485C. Indestro "Select Steel" 1072 7/16 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Mid 1950s to 1970s.

Fig. 485C shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 1072 7/16 combination wrench with streamlined depressed panels, marked with "1072 Select Steel" and the fractional size forged into the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional size forged into the reverse panel. The "Indestro" company name is stamped on the reverse face.

The overall length is 5.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Indestro "Select Steel" 1073 1/2 Combination Wrench

[Indestro Select Steel 1073 1/2 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 486. Indestro "Select Steel" 1073 1/2 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Mid 1950s to 1970s.

Fig. 486 shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 1073 1/2 combination wrench, marked with "1073 Select Steel" and the fractional size forged into the front panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the fractional size forged into the reverse panel.

The overall length is 5.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Indestro "Select Steel" 1076 11/16 Combination Wrenches

The next two figures show examples of the Indestro 1076 combination wrench, with differences in the finish.

[Indestro Select Steel 1076 11/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 487A. Indestro "Select Steel" 1076 11/16 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Mid 1950s to 1970s.

Fig. 487A shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 1076 11/16 combination wrench with streamlined depressed panels, marked with "Forged Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Made in U.S.A." and the sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The model number is forged into a small "size panel" on the front face.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

An example of this model marked for Western Auto's "Westline" brand can be seen as the Westline 1076 Combination Wrench.

[Indestro Select Steel 1076 11/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 487B. Indestro "Select Steel" 1076 11/16 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Mid 1950s to 1970s.

Fig. 487B shows another Indestro "Select Steel" 1076 11/16 combination wrench, marked with "Forged Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Made in U.S.A." and the sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The model number is forged into a small curved panel on the front face.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Indestro "Forged U.S.A." 01077 3/4 Combination Wrench

[Indestro Forged U.S.A. 01077 3/4 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 487C. Indestro "Forged U.S.A." 01077 3/4 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. 1970s to 1980s?

Fig. 487C shows an Indestro 01077 3/4 combination wrench, marked with the fractional size forged into the front panel, with "Forged U.S.A." and the size forged into the reverse panel.

The front face is stamped with the model number, with "Indestro" on the opposite face.

The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with a matte surface.

The leading "0" of the model number apparently indicates the matte finish of the chrome plating.


Indestro "Select Steel" 1078 13/16 Combination Wrenches

The next two figures show examples of the Indestro 1078 combination wrench, with differences in the finish.

[Indestro Select Steel 1078 13/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 488A. Indestro "Select Steel" 1078 13/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. Mid 1950s to 1970s.

Fig. 488A shows an Indestro "Select Steel" 1078 13/16 combination wrench with streamlined depressed panels, marked with "Forged Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Made in U.S.A." and the sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The model number is forged into a small curved panel on the front face.

The overall length is 10.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

[Indestro Select Steel 1078 13/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 488B. Indestro "Select Steel" 1078 13/16 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Mid 1950s to 1970s.

Fig. 488B shows another Indestro "Select Steel" 1078 13/16 combination wrench, marked with "Forged Select Steel" and the fractional sizes forged into the front panel, with "Made in U.S.A." and the sizes forged into the reverse panel.

The model number is forged into a small curved panel on the front face.

The overall length is 10.1 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Indestro "Forged U.S.A." 1079 7/8 Combination Wrench

[Indestro Forged U.S.A. 1079 7/8 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 488C. Indestro "Forged U.S.A." 1079 7/8 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1970s to 1980s?

Fig. 488C shows an Indestro 1079 7/8 combination wrench, marked with the fractional size forged into the front panel, with "Forged U.S.A." and the fractional size forged into the reverse panel.

The front face is stamped with the model number, with "Indestro" on the opposite face.

The overall length is 11.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Indestro Select Socket Tools

In the early 1960s Indestro introduced an "Indestro Select" line of sockets and drive tools, parallel to the Indestro Super line but presumably at a somewhat lower price point. The date of the introduction is based on the filing of a trademark for "Select Steel Tools", which claimed a first use date in March of 1961, but unfortunately we don't have catalog coverage to provide better detail.

The socket tools were initially marked with "Indestro Select" as a brand, but the "Select" was soon dropped in favor of just the Indestro name. The exact usage period for the "Indestro Select" brand is not known, but is likely in the range of 1961 to the mid 1960s.

The Indestro Select brand was also used for "Select Steel" box wrenches, although again apparently only briefly, as examples are relatively uncommon.

There seems to be some ambiguity as to whether the Indestro Select socket tools were made using a lesser grade of steel or whether the price points were achieved by simplified manufacturing. The Indestro catalog 55-M from around 1967 did not have any "Select Steel" or "Indestro Select" headings, but certain socket tools from the "Select" line were available. For example, the 6472 Reversible Ratchet was listed on page 11, and the top of the page noted that the tools were forged from alloy steel.

These considerations suggest that the "Select" may have been dropped to avoid association with the older carbon-manganese "Select Steel" socket tools. It would be interesting to test some of the "Indestro Select" tools for alloy content to see what kind of steel was being used.

The Indestro Select socket tools were available in the 1/4-drive 60xx model series, 3/8-drive 62xx model series, and 1/2-drive 64xx model series. We have a number of examples of these tools and will fill out this section as time permits.


Indestro Select 6470 1/2-Drive Reversible Ratchet

[Indestro Select 6470 1/2-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 489A. Indestro Select 6470 1/2-Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1961 to Mid 1960s.

Fig. 489A shows an Indestro Select 6470 1/2-drive reversible ratchet, stamped with "Indestro Select" and the model number on the handle panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." the reverse panel.

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The ratchet mechanism has a 30-tooth drive gear with a pawl biased by a spring-loaded ball. The forged ratchet body has a slot milled to hold the drive gear and pawl, and the tool appears to have been assembled by pressing the drive stud and pawl pin into place.

Page 8 of the 1962 Indestro catalog 22A has a listing for a No. 3239 ratchet of this same design, which would have been part of the Indestro Super line. But the listing is stamped "Discontinued See Select Steel No. 6470", indicating that some designs had been moved over to the Select line by then.


Indestro 6472 1/2-Drive Reversible Ratchet

[Indestro 6472 1/2-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 489B. Indestro 6472 1/2-Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. Mid 1960s to 1980s.

Fig. 489B shows an Indestro 6472 1/2-drive reversible ratchet, stamped with "Indestro U.S.A." and the model number on the cover plate.

The overall length is 10.3 inches, and the finish is polished chrome.

The ratchet mechanism has a 30-tooth drive gear, with the drive gear and pawl secured within the forged body by a bi-lobed cover plate.

The model number identifies this ratchet as part of the Indestro Select line, although the brand is not marked.

The 6472 ratchet was listed on page 11 of Indestro catalog 55-M from around 1967, a page devoted mostly to tools in the Indestro Super line, and with the top of the page noting that the tools were forged from alloy steel. This suggests that the "Select" socket tools were being made from alloys comparable to those for the "Super" line. A similar model 6471 female-drive reversible ratchet was also available.

The 6472 ratchet was listed on page 26 of Indestro catalog No. 60 from 1982, showing that some tools of the Select line were still available into the 1980s.


Indestro Select 6464 1/2-Drive 5 Inch Extension

[Indestro Select 6464 1/2-Drive 5 Inch Extension]
Fig. 490. Indestro Select 6464 1/2-Drive 5 Inch Extension, with Composite Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1961 to Mid 1960s.

Fig. 490 shows an Indestro Select 6464 1/2-drive 5 inch extension, stamped with the model number plus "Indestro Select" and "U.S.A." on the drive head, as seen in the composite inset.

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is polished chrome.


Indestro Select 64xx 1/2-Drive 12-Point Sockets

[Indestro Select 64xx 1/2-Drive Sockets]
Fig. 490B. Indestro Select 64xx 1/2-Drive Sockets, with Inset for Top View, ca. 1961 to Mid 1960s.

Fig. 490B shows a group of two Indestro Select 1/2-drive 12-point sockets, with models and sizes 6432 (1 inch) on the left and 6434 (1-1/16) on the right.

The sockets are stamped with "Indestro Select" and "U.S.A." plus the model and fractional size on the base. The finish is polished chrome.

The top inset shows the broached interior of the sockets. Note the annular shelf of displaced metal at the base of the broached area, a characteristic of Duro's Hot-Broaching Process.

The sockets have a straight-wall design with two decorative grooves on the base.


Indestro 6632 1/2-Drive 1 Inch 12-Point Deep Socket

[Indestro Select 6632 1/2-Drive 1 Inch 12-Point Deep Socket]
Fig. 490C. Indestro 6632 1/2-Drive 12-Point Deep Socket, with Inset for Top View, ca. Mid 1960s to 1970s.

Fig. 490C shows an Indestro 6632 1/2-drive 1 inch 12-point deep socket, stamped "Indestro" and "U.S.A." with the model number and size.

The finish is polished chrome.

The inset shows the broached interior of the socket, with the annular shelf of displaced metal at the base of the broached area.


Indestro Select 85001 1/2-Drive 16-Piece Socket Set

[Indestro Select 85001 1/2-Drive 16-Piece Socket Set]
Fig. 491. Indestro Select 85001 1/2-Drive 16-Piece Socket Set, ca. 1962.

Fig. 491 shows an Indestro Select 85001 1/2-drive 16-piece socket set in its metal box, consisting of a No. 6470 reversible ratchet, a No. 6464 extension, 11 No. 64xx sockets from 7/16 to 1-1/16, and a No. 6626 13/16 deep socket. The set originally contained a universal joint as well.

The socket models and sizes are, from the left, 6414 (7/16), 6416 (1/2), 6418 (9/16), 6420 (5/8), 6422 (11/16), 6424 (3/4), 6426 (13/16), 6428 (7/8), 6430 (15/16), 6432 (1 inch), and 6434 (1-1/16). The sockets are stamped "Indestro Select" and "U.S.A." with the model number and size, and the finish is polished chrome.

This set was originally acquired as just the empty box and has been reconstructed from our inventory. The large sticker on the inside cover notes the set as a "Select Steel Socket Set", and the text box at the right lists the contents of the set, although without model numbers. We have followed the list of contents as a guide in replacing the tools.

The set as pictured is missing the universal joint, and we have substituted a No. 6464 5 inch extension for the specified 2.5 inch extension.


Indestro Select 6270 3/8-Drive Reversible Ratchet

[Indestro Select 6270 3/8-Drive Reversible Ratchet]
Fig. 492A. Indestro Select 6270 3/8-Drive Reversible Ratchet, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1961 to Mid 1960s.

Fig. 492A shows an Indestro Select 6270 3/8-drive reversible ratchet, stamped with "Indestro Select " and the model number on the flat handle, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.5 inches, and the finish is polished chrome.

The Indestro Select brand marking suggests production from 1961 to the mid 1960s.


Indestro [Select/Duro] 6228 3/8-Drive 1 Inch Sockets

[Indestro Select/Duro 6228 3/8-Drive 1 Inch Sockets]
Fig. 492B. Indestro [Select/Duro] 6228 3/8-Drive 1 Inch Sockets, with Inset for Top View, ca. 1961 to 1980s.

Fig. 492B shows a group of three Indestro 6228 3/8-drive 1 inch 12-point sockets, illustrating three generations of this socket model.

The brand markings are, from the left, "Indestro Select", "Indestro", and "Duro-Indestro", and all of the sockets are stamped "U.S.A." with the model number and size.

The finish is polished chrome.


Indestro 6224UV 3/8-Drive 3/4 6-Point Universal Socket

[Indestro Select/Duro 6224UV 3/8-Drive 3/4 6-Point Universal Socket]
Fig. 492C. Indestro 6224UV 3/8-Drive 3/4 6-Point Universal Socket, with Inset for Top View, ca. Mid 1960s to 1970s.

Fig. 492C shows an Indestro 6224UV 3/8-drive 3/4 6-point universal socket, stamped "Indestro" and "U.S.A." with the model number and fractional size.

The overall height is 2.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Indestro 6050 1/4-Drive Flex Handle

[Indestro 6050 1/4-Drive Flex Handle]
Fig. 492D. Indestro 6050 1/4-Drive Flex Handle, with Inset for Reverse, ca. Mid 1960s to 1970s.

Fig. 492D shows an Indestro 6050 1/4-drive flex handle, stamped with "Indestro" and the model number on the flat handle, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.0 inches, and the finish is polished chrome.

The model number identifies this tool as part of the Indestro Select line, although the brand is not marked.


Late Production

This section will present scattered snapshots of Duro/Indestro's late production, roughly from the 1960s onward.


Late Combination Wrenches

Duro's experiments with thin format and "Dart" style combination wrenches were explored in a section on Duro Combination Wrenches. By around 1962 Duro's thin format combination wrenches had been redesigned with thicker shanks and heftier ends, giving them the more standard dimensions expected of this type of wrench. The new heavier combination wrenches continued to use the same 22xx model numbers previously assigned to the thin wrenches.

Around this same time Duro created a series of short format combination wrenches, using the same model numbers but with an "S" suffix. The short wrenches were available in sizes ranging from 2227S (1/4) up to 2237S (3/4).

The 22xx line of long "Standard" combination wrenches continued until around 1972, when they were superseded by a 33xx model number series, in which the lower two digits encoded the size in 32nds.


Duro-Chrome 2237B 13/16 Combination Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2237B 13/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 493. Duro-Chrome 2237B 13/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1960s to Early 1970s.

Fig. 493 shows a Duro-Chrome 2237B 13/16 combination wrench, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and "Forged in U.S.A." along a curved arc on the front face, with the model number and fractional size on the reverse face.

The overall length is 10.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Duro-Chrome 2238 7/8 Combination Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2238 7/8 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 494. Duro-Chrome 2238 7/8 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1960s to Early 1970s.

Fig. 494 shows a Duro-Chrome 2238 7/8 combination wrench, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and "Forged in U.S.A." along a curved arc on the front face, with the model number and fractional size on the reverse face.

The overall length is 11.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Duro-Chrome 2239 15/16 Combination Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2239 15/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 495. Duro-Chrome 2239 15/16 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1960s to Early 1970s.

Fig. 495 shows a Duro-Chrome 2239 15/16 combination wrench, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and "Forged in U.S.A." on the front face, with the model number and size on the reverse face.

The overall length is 12.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Duro-Chrome 2240 1 Inch Combination Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2240 1 Inch Combination Wrench]
Fig. 496. Duro-Chrome 2240 1 Inch Combination Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1960s to Early 1970s.

Fig. 496 shows a Duro-Chrome 2240 1 inch combination wrench, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and "Forged in U.S.A." on the front face, with the model number and size on the reverse face.

The overall length is 13.2 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Duro-Chrome 2236S 11/16 Short Combination Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2236S 11/16 Short Combination Wrench]
Fig. 497. Duro-Chrome 2236S 11/16 Short Combination Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1960s to 1970s.

Fig. 497 shows a Duro-Chrome 2236S 11/16 short combination wrench, stamped with "Duro-Chrome" and "Forged in U.S.A." on the front face, with the model number and size on the reverse face.

The overall length is 7.6 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Late Box-End Wrenches


Indestro Super 731A 9/16x5/8 Offset Box Wrench

Duro/Indestro made box wrenches with streamlined raised panels for many decades after the 1937 introduction, but in later years this important stylistic touch was dropped. Late production can be recognized by flat shanks with a rectangular cross-section.

[Indestro Super 731A 9/16x5/8 Offset Box Wrench]
Fig. 498. Indestro Super 731A 9/16x5/8 Offset Box Wrench, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1970s to 1980s.

Fig. 498 shows an Indestro Super 731A 9/16x5/8 offset box wrench, stamped with "Indestro Super" and the fractional sizes on the flat shank, with "Forged in U.S.A." and the model number on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.4 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.


Duro-Chrome 2021 1/4x5/16 Ignition Box Wrench

Duro produced miniature box wrenches in two models, the No. 2021 1/4x5/16 model seen in this next figure and a No. 2022 9/32x11/32 model. These wrenches were designed for work on ignition systems or other small equipment.

The ignition box wrenches were listed as early as the 1946 Duro catalog.

[Duro-Chrome 2021 1/4x5/16 Ignition Box Wrench]
Fig. 499. Duro-Chrome 2021 1/4x5/16 Ignition Box Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. Late 1960s?

Fig. 499 shows a Duro-Chrome 2021 1/4x5/16 miniature box wrench, marked "Duro-Chrome" on the streamlined raised panel, with "Forged in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 3.8 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.

The present example still retains the streamlined raised panel, but is otherwise rather crudely forged and finished, suggesting a later production date.


Post-Modern Sockets

Sometime in the late 1950s or early 1960s Duro began making changes to their socket designs, with the result that some of the finer features of the earlier sockets were lost. These changes may have been driven by the need to reduce costs under competitive pressures.


Duro-Chrome 1/2-Drive Sockets Showing Progressive Changes

[Duro Sockets Showing Progressive Changes]
Fig. 500. Duro Sockets Showing Progressive Changes, from Left: 1619, 1618, 1626, 1634/1234.

Fig. 500 shows a progression of socket design changes, starting from the reference socket on the left, a Duro-Chrome 1619 with tapered walls and a finely cross-hatched knurled band.

The second socket is a Duro-Chrome 1618 and still has tapered walls, but the fine cross-hatching has been replaced with a simpler straight knurled band. The illustrations in Catalog 37-M from around 1961 show that this change had been made by this time.

The third socket from the left is marked as a Duro-Chrome 1626. Note that this socket now has straight instead of tapered walls, thereby losing what had long been touted as an important feature for working in tight places.

The final change is shown in the rightmost socket, which similarly has straight walls, but is now dual-marked as both a Duro-Chrome 1634 and a Duro-Indestro 1234.


Duro-Chrome 5725 3/8-Drive 9-Piece Socket Set

[Duro 5725 3/8-Drive 9-Piece Socket Set]
Fig. 501. Duro 5725 3/8-Drive 9-Piece Socket Set, ca. Late 1960s to 1970s.

Fig. 501 shows a Duro 5725 3/8-drive 9-piece socket set in its metal holder.

The socket models and sizes are, from the right, 4408H (1/4), 4410H (5/16), 4412H (3/8), 4414H (7/16), 4416H (1/2), 4418H (9/16), 4420H (5/8), 4422H (11/16), and 4424H (3/4).

The sockets are stamped "Duro-Chrome" and "U.S.A." on the base, and the finish is chrome plating.

This socket set was listed in Duro catalog No. 40 from around 1972.


Duro-Chrome 44xxH 3/8-Drive 6-Point Sockets from 5725 Set

[Duro 44xxH 3/8-Drive 6-Point Sockets from 5725 Set]
Fig. 502. Duro 44xxH 3/8-Drive 6-Point Sockets from 5725 Set, ca. Late 1960s to 1970s.

Fig. 502 shows the two largest sockets from the Duro 5725 3/8-drive socket set, with models and sizes (from the right) 4422H (11/16) and 4424H (3/4).

The sockets are stamped with "Duro-Chrome" plus the model number and fractional size on the base. The finish is polished chrome.

The socket design has straight walls with a knurled band at the base, and the construction is hot-broached, with an annular shelf of displaced metal at the base of the broached area.


Indestro Super N7732 3/8-Drive 23-Piece Socket Set

[1967 Catalog Listing for Indestro N7732 3/8-Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 503. 1967 Catalog Listing for Indestro N7732 3/8-Drive Socket Set.

In the mid 1960s Indestro began using molded plastic inserts as organizers for some of its socket sets, which were prominenty listed as "M.P.I." sets.

The scan in Fig. 503 shows a listing for an Indestro N7732 3/8-drive 23-piece socket set, as found on page 10 of Indestro catalog 55-M from around 1967. The text "Indestro MPI" can be seen in the upper left corner of the illustration.

We have an example of an Indestro Super N7732 3/8-drive "M.P.I." set in very good condition and are preparing it for display.

Fig. 504. Indestro Super N7732 3/8-Drive 23-Piece Socket Set To Be Added.

Other Late Production


Duro-Chrome 2087A 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench

[Duro-Chrome 2087A 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 505. Duro-Chrome 2087A 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1968+.

Fig. 505 shows a Duro-Chrome 2087A 8 inch adjustable wrench, stamped "Duro-Chrome" and "U.S.A." on the shank, with "8 In." and "Forged Alloy Steel" on the reverse.

The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.0 inches. The finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

One construction detail to note is the square-shouldered keyway for the sliding jaw, visible in the top inset. The square shoulder was a patented feature of the J.H. Williams adjustable wrenches, and this detail plus the general construction identify Williams as the maker of this wrench. A similar example can be seen as the Williams AP-8 Adjustable Wrench.


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