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Sockets and Drive Tools

Walden was one of the early makers of socket sets and was offering pressed-steel socket sets by around 1911. These early socket tools have been discussed in a previous section on Early Walden Socket Sets, and in this section we'll look at the heavy-duty machined sockets that became the successors to the early products.

Although the early pressed-steel socket sets were suitable only for light-duty work, heavier sockets were on the way. By 1916 Walden had developed a method of securing heavy sockets to handles and became a leading producer of fixed socket wrenches. These heavy-wall sockets were then given a square drive end broach, and Walden began offering sets of heavy-duty interchangeable sockets.

The date on which these heavy interchangeable sockets were first offered is not yet known, but we can trace Walden's development work by examining their patent filings. Before 1920 Walden had filed two important patents for ratchet handles, #1,281,484 in 1917 and #1,420,467 in 1919, both of which describe the construction of high-strength but inexpensive ratchet handles. These patent filings suggest that Walden was preparing to make heavy-duty interchangeable sockets as early as 1917, but their actual production appears to have been delayed by some years.

[1920 Advertisement for Walden No. 27 Socket Set]
1920 Advertisement for Walden No. 27 Socket Set. [External Link]

Currently the earliest known commercial reference to the Walden interchangeable socket sets is the advertisement at the left, which appeared on page 166 in a 1920 issue of the Tractor Field Book, published by the Farm Implement News Company. The illustration shows the contents of the No. 27 set, Walden's largest collection of socket tools, which included heavy-wall sockets in hex and square broachings, plus a ratchet, brace, sliding Tee-handle, universal, and extensions. The text also mentions the smaller No. 8 and No. 16 socket sets.

After this advertisement, our earliest catalog reference is the 1922 catalog from the C.W. Marwedel Company, an industrial supplier. The Marwedel catalog offered a number of the Walden sockets sets, as well as individual drive tools and sockets.


Based on our current understanding of Walden's development of sockets and drive tools, the later production falls into three phases, with the approximate dates listed below.

  • The Interchangeable Period, 1919-1924. The period marks the first development of heavy-duty interchangeable sockets based on the 1/2 square drive standard. Walden developed and patented the design used for its 516 and 716 ratchets, and developed a series of 1/2-drive speeders, handles, and extensions. The sockets produced at this time were the 2xx hex series and 1xx square series. Toward the end of this period Walden developed socket tools with 1 inch hex drive, at that time the largest drive size available from any maker.
  • The Chrome-Alloy Period, 1925-1945. This period begins with the first use of chrome-nickel alloy steel for sockets, and continues with the development of the 8xx and 18xx 12-point sockets. Later development added 1/4 and 3/8-drive sockets and tools, and chrome finishes were offered.
  • The Modern Period, 1946 and Later. By the late 1940s Walden was using a cold-forming process to produce its sockets, and may have been one of the earliest companies to use this technique. (Cold-forming is now the dominant method for making sockets.) Walden also added some new ratchet designs during this period.

The Interchangeable Period, 1919-1924

Walden produced sockets in many styles and configurations, and some of the model number series went through significant changes as the design and production methods improved.

The earliest heavy-wall sockets were offered in two 1/2-drive model number series, the 1xx models with square (4-point) broachings, and the 2xx models with hex (6-point) broachings. (In our shorthand the "xx" indicates the size in 32nds.) The design of these early sockets was simple, with tapered walls for the smaller sizes, and stepped bases but straight walls for the larger sockets.

The examples below will illustrate these various models and styles, at least where we have models available.


Walden-Worcester No. 8 Socket Set

The Walden No. 8 socket set was the company's smallest collection and was particularly recommended for servicing Ford automobiles. The set consisted of a No. 516 ratchet, two No. 1109 drive plugs, a No. 1139 extension, a No. 1102 universal joint, seven 2xx-series hex sockets with sizes 1/2 to 15/16, and one No. 118 9/16 square socket. (Two drive plugs were required in order to use the double-female universal joint.)

The hex socket models and sizes were 216 (1/2), 218 (9/16), 220 (5/8), 222 (11/16), 224 (3/4), 228 (7/8), and 230 (15/16).

The No. 8 set was supplied in a sturdy wooden box with wrap-over hinges. Our set is currently being prepared for display and will be added in the near future.

Fig. 59. Walden No. 8 1/2-Drive Socket Set To Be Added.

Walden-Worcester No. 16 Socket Set

The next figure shows a Walden No. 16 1/2-drive socket set, referred to as the "No. 16 Combination Wrench Set" in catalogs. The No. 16 socket set was one of Walden's standard early socket sets and was intermediate in size, with fewer tools than the largest No. 27 set but more sockets than the modest No. 8 set.

[Walden No. 16 1/2-Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 60. Walden No. 16 1/2-Drive Socket Set, ca. 1919-1922.

Fig. 60 shows an early Walden No. 16 1/2-drive socket set in the lower half of its wooden box. The set consists of a No. 516 ratchet, a No. 1139 extension, two No. 1109 drive plugs, a No. 1102 universal, and 16 2xx-series hex sockets with sizes ranging from 7/16 to 1-1/4. The set as acquired was complete except for three broken or missing sockets, one of which has been replaced for the photograph.

The socket models and sizes are, from left to right in the bottom row, 214 (7/16), 216 (1/2), 218 (9/16), 219 (19/32, missing), 220 (5/8), 222 (11/16, missing), 224 (3/4), 225 (25/32), and 226 (13/16). The top row models and sizes are, from left to right, 240 (1-1/4), 236 (1-1/8), 234 (1-1/16), 232 (1 Inch), 231 (31/32), 230 (15/16), and 228 (7/8).

In our particular set the No. 516 ratchet was marked with a patent pending notation, which based on the patent dates gives a likely manufacturing date of 1919-1922 for the set. Several details of the socket construction also suggest an early production date; in particular, the larger sockets have straight rather than tapered walls, and the small sockets have a smaller clearance hole and shallower broaching than later examples.

The sturdy box is made of chestnut lumber with finger-joints at the corners. The cover for the box has been removed for repairs, and will be shown at a later time.

The next several figures will show the various sockets and tools from the No. 16 set.


Walden-Worcester 516 1/2-Drive Ratchet

[Walden 516 1/2-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 61. Walden 516 1/2-Drive Ratchet, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1919-1922.

Fig. 61 shows the 1/2-drive Walden model 516 ratchet from the No. 16 set, marked "Walden Worcester" with "Made in U.S.A." and "Pat. Pending" on the reverse of the handle.

The overall length is 9.2 inches. The finish is a thin nickel plating, now worn off in some areas.

This ratchet was acquired as part of a No. 16 socket set. The female-drive ratchet was intended to work with either the 1109 drive plug or the 1139 double-male extension, both included in the set.

The patent pending notation was found to refer to patent #1,420,467, filed in 1919 and issued to W.S. Bellows in 1922. This patent describes a ratchet design with a forged handle fitted to a stamped-steel body, allowing the same parts to be supplied with handles of different lengths.


Walden-Worcester No. 1102 1/2-Drive Double-Female Universal Joint

[Walden No. 1102 1/2-Drive Double-Female Universal Joint]
Fig. 62. Walden No. 1102 1/2-Drive Double-Female Universal Joint, ca. 1919-1922.

Fig. 62 shows the 1/2-drive Walden No. 1102 double-female universal from the No. 16 set, marked "Made in U.S.A." and "Walden-Worcester".

The overall length is 3.0 inches.


Walden-Worcester 2xx-Series 1/2-Drive Hex Sockets

The next several photographs show examples of the 2xx-series sockets from the No. 16 socket set.

[Walden 2xx 1/2-Drive Hex Sockets]
Fig. 63. Walden 2xx 1/2-Drive Hex Sockets, with Inset for Broaching, ca. 1919-1922.

Fig. 63 shows the two smallest 1/2-drive Walden 2xx series sockets, each stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the base. The models and sizes are, from the left, 214 (7/16) and 216 (1/2).

The finish is nickel plating.

The top inset shows the broached opening of the sockets. Note that the the broaching is relatively shallow, and that the socket has been drilled only to provide clearance for the expected bolt size. The smaller clearance hole was probably intended to improve the strength of the socket.

[Walden 2xx 1/2-Drive Hex Sockets]
Fig. 64. Walden 2xx 1/2-Drive Hex Sockets, with Inset for Broaching, ca. 1919-1922.

Fig. 64 shows a group of three 1/2-drive Walden 2xx series sockets, each stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the upper wall. The models and sizes are, from the left, 230 (15/16), 231 (31/32), and 232 (1 Inch).

The finish is nickel plating.

Note that these larger examples of the 2xx socket series have straight upper walls. Later production of the 2xx sockets used tapered walls on the large sizes as well as the small sizes.

[Walden 240 1/2-Drive 1-1/4 Hex Socket]
Fig. 65. Walden 240 1/2-Drive 1-1/4 Hex Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1919-1922.

Fig. 65 shows the largest socket from the No. 16 set, a 1/2-drive Walden 240 1-1/4 hex socket, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the upper wall.

The finish is nickel plating.

Note that this socket has straight upper walls, as with the sockets in the previous figure. Later production of the 2xx sockets had tapered walls for the large sizes as well as the small sizes.

Walden-Worcester 125 1/2-Drive Square Socket

In addition to the 2xx series of hex sockets, Walden also produced a 1xx series of square sockets.

[Walden 125 1/2-Drive 25/32 Square Socket]
Fig. 66. Walden 125 1/2-Drive 25/32 Square Socket, with Inset for Broaching, ca. 1920-1925.

Fig. 66 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 125 25/32 square socket, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the upper wall.

The finish is nickel plating.


Walden-Worcester 1107 1/2-Drive Brace Socket Wrench

Our next figure demonstrates that Walden took the concept of "interchangeable" more seriously than others, or at least more literally. If "interchangeable" meant swapping sockets to other companies, to Walden it meant swapping drive parts as well. Included among their early drive tools was a configurable brace handle with both male and female ends, which allowed it to be combined with other tools in various configurations.

[Walden 1107 1/2-Drive Brace Handle and 1108 Knobl]
Fig. 67. Walden 1107 1/2-Drive Brace Handle and 1108 Knob, with Inset for Detail.

The operation will become clear by reference to Fig. 67, where we see a 1/2-drive Walden 1107 brace socket wrench with a model 1108 knob attached at the left. The brace is marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on one leg of the bend, as shown in greater detail in the inset.

The throw is 4.8 inches, and the overall length (exclusive of knob) is 9.5 inches.

The brace is very solidly constructed, with the male drive stud attached with a pin, and the female socket crimped at the bottom. The finish is nickel plate, though much of the finish has been lost due to wear and rust.

In typical operation, a drive plug (Model 1109) or double-male extension (Model 1139) would be inserted in the drive socket on the right, a 1/2-drive female connection. At this point the tool would function as a conventional speeder or brace, and sockets could be connected as needed.

But the tool allows many other other possibilities -- for example, connecting a socket in place of the knob, and adding the knob on the other side, or perhaps a ratchet handle instead. Or as suggested in a catalog, different sized sockets could be connected on each side to create a double socket wrench.


Walden-Worcester 1108 1/2-Drive Brace Handle

[Walden 1108 1/2-Drive Knob]
Fig. 68. Walden 1108 1/2-Drive Brace Handle, with Inset for Detail.

The knob or brace handle in the above figure is shown in greater detail in Fig. 68, a 1/2-drive Walden 1108 brace handle marked "Made in U.S.A." on the shaft. The inset shows the top of the knob with markings "Walden Worcester Speed Wrenches" and "Patents Pending".

The patents applying to this tool have not been found yet.


Walden-Worcester 1139 1/2-Drive Double-Male Extension

One of the accessory tools designed for use with the 1107 brace was a double-male extension, as illustrated in the next figure.

[Walden 1139 1/2-Drive Double-Male Extension]
Fig. 69. Walden 1139 1/2-Drive Double-Male Extension.

Fig. 69 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1139 double-male extension, stamped with "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the square shank.

The overall length is 9.0 inches.

In the photograph the left end of the extension has an inserted pin to act as a stop, and both ends are fitted with friction balls (not visible in the photograph). The end without stop-pins was expected to be connected to another drive tool for which no stop was needed, such as the 1107 brace or 1102 universal.

Walden's use of stop-pins is shown in a 1922 catalog illustration, but in a 1925 catalog the stops appear to be pressed tabs. This detail may be useful for estimating the manufacturing date of early extensions.

This particular tool was acquired with the 1107 brace socket wrench, but was also included as a component in most of the early Walden socket sets.


Walden-Worcester 516 1/2-Drive Ratchet with Nickel Finish

The later production of the model 516 ratchets was given a heavy nickel plate finish.

[Walden 516 1/2-Drive Ratchet, Nickel Finish]
Fig. 70. Walden 516 1/2-Drive Ratchet, Nickel Finish, with Inset for Reverse Detail, ca. 1919-1922.

Fig. 70 shows an example, a 1/2-drive Walden 516 ratchet, marked "Walden Worcester" with "Made in U.S.A." and "Pat. Pending" on the reverse.

The overall length is 9.0 inches.


Walden-Worcester 716 1/2-Drive Long Ratchet

Walden also offered a model 716 ratchet with a longer handle.

[Walden 716 1/2-Drive Long Ratchet]
Fig. 71. Walden 716 1/2-Drive Long Ratchet, with Insets for Reverse and Side View, ca. 1919-1922.

Fig. 71 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 716 long-handled ratchet, marked with "Walden Worcester" forged into the handle, with "Pat. Pending" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the reverse. The reverse also has a forged-in "K" code visible at the right.

The overall length is 12.0 inches. The finish is nickel plating, with some losses due to wear and rust.

The patent pending status refers to patent #1,420,467, filed by W.S. Bellows in 1919 and issued in 1921.

This ratchet is basically identical to the 516 model except for the longer forged handle.


Walden-Worcester No. 21 Drain Plug Socket Set

Early automobiles required frequent changes of lubricating oil, and the oil drain plugs for the various auto models came in a wide variety of sizes and formats. Some plugs needed hex sockets, some needed square sockets, and a some even needed square plug (driver) sockets.

To address this service problem, some manufacturers offered special socket sets tailored to drain plug service. Walden was offering its No. 21 drain plug socket set at least as early as 1925 and probably earlier.

[Walden-Worcester No. 21 Drain Plug Socket Set]
Fig. 72. Walden-Worcester No. 21 Drain Plug Socket Set, ca. 1930.

Fig. 72 shows a Walden No. 21 socket set in a metal case, a collection of sockets and drive tools intended primarily for drain plug service. The set consists of a sliding Tee handle and three groups of sockets: shallow hex sockets, shallow square sockets, and square pipe plug (driver) sockets. The metal case is embossed on the cover with "Walden Worcester Wrenches" and "Made in U.S.A.", seen from the back (reversed) in the photograph.

The hex sockets in the back row have models and sizes, from the left, 340 (1-1/4), 336 (1-1/8), 334 (1-1/16), 332 (1 inch), 330 (15/16), and 316 (1/2). The 324 (3/4) socket is missing and would fit in the gap between the 15/16 and 1/2 sockets.

The square sockets (the third row from the back) have models and sizes, from the left, 0310 (5/16), 0312 (3/8), 0316 (1/2), 0318 (9/16), 0322 (11/16), 0324 (3/4), and 0326 (13/16). Two sockets are missing, the 0314 (7/16) and 0320 (5/8), and the 0322 socket has been repaired.

The square pipe plug sockets (the front row) have models and sizes, from the left, P-10 (5/16), P-12 (3/8), P-14 (7/16), P-16 (1/2), P-18 (9/16), P-20 (5/8), P-22 (11/16), and P-24 (3/4).

All of the sockets in the set are marked stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." in a small outline box, and most of the sockets have a reversed-"F" date code. The finish is cadmium plating.

The drive tools are seen in the second slot from the back, a 1/2-drive Walden 1124 sliding Tee extension and a 7/16 diameter crossbar. The sliding Tee is marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with a reversed-"F" date code, matching the markings on most of the sockets. The cross-bar is marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." and fits the sliding Tee correctly, but was not original to the set.


Walden-Worcester No. 1124 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Head and Crossbar

[Walden-Worcester 1124 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Head]
Fig. 73. Walden-Worcester 1124 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Head and Crossbar, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1930.

Fig. 73 shows the 1/2-drive Walden 1124 sliding Tee handle from the No. 21 set, consisting of a 1124 sliding Tee head and an unnumbered 7/16 diameter cross-bar. The Tee head is stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank, with a reversed-"F" date code at the right. The cross-bar is also stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A.", but no model number is marked.

The length of the bar is 7.0 inches and that of the drive shaft is 4.0 inches. The finish is cadmium plating.


1 Inch Hex Drive Tools

By 1925 Walden had introduced a line of 1 inch hex drive sockets and tools, at that time the largest drive size available from any maker. Our earliest catalog reference for these tools is the 1925 Dunham, Carrigan, & Hayden catalog No. 73, which offered an extensive selection of Walden tools. The 1 inch hex tools available in 1925 consisted of an 1103 sliding Tee head, an 1112 sliding Tee extension, an 1123 handle bar, and twelve sockets ranging in size from 1-1/4 (No. 540) up to 2 inches (No. 564). These tools could be purchased individually or in the No. 500 set in a metal box.

Later additions to the 1 inch hex drive product line included the 1132 and 1137 ratchets, 1116 plug connector and 1117 extensions, and additional sockets to cover the range from 7/8 up to 2-7/16 inches. The No. 510 socket set included a ratchet, extension, sliding Tee handle, and ten sockets.

Although the 1 inch hex drive line was introduced around the same time as the development of chrome alloy sockets, the earlier 1 inch hex tools were still made of carbon steel. In addition, the design of the sockets resembles a scaled-up version of the 1/2-drive sockets.


Walden-Worcester Early 546 1 Inch Hex Drive Socket

[Walden 546 1 Inch Hex Drive 1-7/16 Socket]
Fig. 74. Walden 546 Early 1 Inch Hex Drive 1-7/16 Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1925.

Fig. 74 shows a 1 inch hex drive Walden 546 1-7/16 socket, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the upper wall.

The left inset shows the 1 inch hex drive end, and the right inset shows the broached service opening.

This is an earlier socket and lacks the cross-bar hole used for later production.


Walden-Worcester Early 548 1 Inch Hex Drive Socket

[Walden 548 1 Inch Hex Drive 1-1/2 Socket]
Fig. 75. Walden 548 Early 1 Inch Hex Drive 1-1/2 Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1925.

Fig. 75 shows a 1 inch hex drive Walden 548 1-1/2 socket, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the upper wall.

The right inset shows the broached service opening, with the 1 inch hex drive end visible in the background.

This is an earlier socket and lacks the cross-bar hole used for later production.


Walden-Worcester 540 1 Inch Hex Drive Socket

[Walden 540 1 Inch Hex Drive 1-1/4 Socket]
Fig. 76. Walden 540 1 Inch Hex Drive 1-1/4 Socket, with Insets for Broaching Detail, ca. 1927.

Fig. 76 shows a 1 inch hex drive Walden 540 1-1/4 socket, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the base.

The insets shows the broached drive end (left) and service opening (right) of the socket.

The socket is equipped with a cross-bar hole for a 7/8 inch bar, a convenience feature added sometime after the introduction of the 1 inch drive tools.


Walden-Worcester 558 1 Inch Hex Drive 1-13/16 Socket

[Walden 558 1 Inch Hex Drive 1-13/16 Inch Socket]
Fig. 77. Walden 558 1 Inch Hex Drive 1-13/16 Inch Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1927.

Fig. 77 shows a 1 inch hex drive Walden 558 1-13/16 socket, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the base (see lower composite inset).

The left inset shows the drive end of the socket with its 1 inch hex opening. The right inset shows the broached service opening of the socket, with the hex drive end visible at the bottom.

The socket is equipped with a cross-bar hole for a 7/8 inch bar, a convenience feature added somewhat after the introduction of the 1 inch drive tools.


Walden-Worcester 564 1 Inch Hex Drive 2 Inch Socket

[Walden 564 1 Inch Hex Drive 2 Inch Socket]
Fig. 78. Walden 564 1 Inch Hex Drive 2 Inch Socket, with Inset for Broaching Detail, ca. 1927.

Fig. 78 shows a 1 inch hex drive Walden 564 2 inch socket, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the base.

The inset shows the broached service opening of the socket, with the hex drive end visible at the bottom.

The socket is equipped with a cross-bar hole for a 7/8 inch bar, a convenience feature added somewhat after the introduction of the 1 inch drive tools.


Walden-Worcester "Chrome Alloy" 4464 1 Inch Hex Drive 2 Inch Double-Square Socket

The production of 1 inch hex drive tools extended into the "Chrome Alloy" period, as the next figure illustrates.

[Walden Chrome Alloy 4464 1 Inch Hex Drive 2 Inch Double-Square Socket]
Fig. 79. Walden "Chrome Alloy" 4464 1 Inch Hex Drive 2 Inch Double-Square Socket, with Insets for End View, Broaching Detail, and Marking Detail, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 79 shows a 1 inch hex drive Walden 4464 2 inch double-square socket, stamped with "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." in an outline box, with a reversed-"Z" date code and "Chrome Alloy" at the right.

The overall height is 3.6 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with minor pitting due to rust.

The left inset shows the drive end with its 1 inch hex opening, and the right inset shows the broached double-square service opening.

The socket is equipped with a cross-bar hole for a 7/8 inch bar, a convenience feature added somewhat after the introduction of the 1 inch drive tools.


Walden-Worcester 1112 1 Inch Hex Drive Sliding Tee Extension

[Walden 1112 1 Inch Hex Drive Sliding Tee Extension]
Fig. 80. Walden 1112 1 Inch Hex Drive Sliding Tee Extension, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1925-1929.

Fig. 80 shows a 1 inch hex drive Walden 1112 sliding Tee extension, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the head.

The overall length is 13.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This tool is intended for use with the Walden 1123 7/8 diameter handle bar. The right inset shows the drive head with a detent ball in the cross-bar hole.


Walden-Worcester Early 1132 1 Inch Hex Drive Ratchet

[Walden 1132 1 Inch Hex Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 81. Walden 1132 1 Inch Hex Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1928-1929.

Fig. 81 shows a 1 inch hex drive Walden 1132 ratchet, stamped "Stevens Walden Worcester" on the handle.

The overall length is 19.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Walden-Worcester 1132 1 Inch Hex Drive Ratchet with Forged Body

In later production Walden increased the strength of the 1132 ratchet by using a rugged forged body, as illustrated in the next figure.

[Walden 1132 1 Inch Hex Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 82. Walden 1132 1 Inch Hex Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1930+.

Fig. 82 shows a later version of the Walden 1132 ratchet with a forged body, marked with the "Walden Worcester" logo and "Worcester, Mass." forged into the handle, with "Made in U.S.A." on the reverse side (not shown).

The overall length is 20.1 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Walden-Worcester 1 Inch Hex Drive Plug for 1132 Ratchet

[Walden 1 Inch Hex Drive Plug]
Fig. 83. Walden 1 Inch Hex Drive Plug for 1132 Ratchet, with Inset for End View, ca. 1928-1929.

Fig. 83 shows the unmarked 1 inch hex drive plug for the Walden 1132 ratchet.

The overall length is 2.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The drive plug is equipped with two friction balls at each end, but three of the four balls were missing when the tool was acquired. The missing balls were replaced with a steel ball of the same 0.250 inch diameter, backed by a suitable 7/32 diameter spring cut to size for each hole. The ball and spring assembly was then swaged in place using a small socket (0.28 end diameter) as the swaging die.


Walden-Worcester 1103 1 Inch Hex Drive Sliding Tee Head and Extension

[Walden 1103 1 Inch Hex Drive Sliding Tee Head]
Fig. 84. Walden 1103 1 Inch Hex Drive Sliding Tee Head, with Insets for End View and Marking Detail, ca. 1930+.

Fig. 84 shows a 1 inch hex drive Walden 1103 sliding Tee head, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the side, with an "L" date code at the right (see left composite inset).

The overall length is 4.9 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The sliding Tee head has a cross-bar hole for a 7/8 diameter bar, equipped with a detent ball for convenience. The end of the body is broached with a 1 inch hex opening for use as an extension, as shown in the right inset.

This version of the model 1103 with the broached end was offered somewhat later than the other hex drive tools.


The Chrome Alloy Period, 1925-1945

A 1925 catalog shows that Walden had already started using chrome-nickel alloy steel for its sockets by this time, making Walden one of the earliest manufacturers of alloy sockets. (Recently found information indicates Mossberg was using a chrome alloy for sockets as early as 1922, although not in the standard 1/2 square drive.) Walden sockets from this period may be marked with "Chrome Nickel" (or "Chrome Alloy") in an outline box, particularly for the model series that predated the switch to alloy steel.

By 1928 an 8xx series of 1/2-drive sockets was available, which featured tapered walls and double-hex (12-point) broachings. (The 1xx and 2xx series continued to be available as well.) At this time the socket design featured a knurled band around the center, and catalog illustrations show this style on all of the 1xx, 2xx, and 8xx series.

Somewhat later Walden created the 1/2-drive 18xx socket series, with straight walls and double-hex broachings. The earliest form of the 18xx sockets had a single knurled band around the base, but the later (and more commonly found) style featured two narrow knurled bands, one around the base and the other near the center.

This period also saw the introduction of sockets and tools in 1 inch hex drive, at that time the largest drive size produced by any tool maker. However, at least initially these large tools appear not to have been made of alloy steel, but instead were produced from carbon steel and hardened after machining.


214 "Chrome Nickel" 7/16 Hex Socket

[Walden-Worcester 214 1/2-Drive 7/16 Inch Socket]
Fig. 85. Walden-Worcester 214 1/2-Drive 7/16 Inch Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1925.

Fig. 85 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 214 7/16 inch hex socket, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." inside a box outline, and with "Chrome Nickel" in a separate box outline.

The finish is cadmium plating.


231 "Chrome Nickel" 31/32 Hex Socket

[Walden-Worcester 231 1/2-Drive 31/32 Hex Socket]
Fig. 86. Walden-Worcester 231 1/2-Drive 31/32 Hex Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1925.

Fig. 86 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 231 31/32 hex socket, marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." inside a box outline, and with "Chrome Nickel" in a separate box outline.

The socket has an interesting rounded base and a thin knurled band around the center.


232 "Chrome Nickel" 1 Inch Hex Socket

[Walden-Worcester 232 1/2-Drive 1 Inch Hex Socket]
Fig. 87. Walden-Worcester 232 1/2-Drive 1 Inch Hex Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1925.

Fig. 87 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 232 1 inch hex socket, marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." inside a box outline, and with "Chrome Nickel" in a separate box outline.

The socket has an interesting rounded base and a thin knurled band around the center.


230/830 "Chrome Nickel" 15/16 Double-Hex Socket

[Walden-Worcester 230/830 1/2-Drive 15/16 Double-Hex Socket]
Fig. 88. Walden-Worcester 230/830 1/2-Drive 15/16 Double-Hex Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1925.

Fig. 88 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 830 15/16 double-hex socket, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." inside a box outline, and with "Chrome Nickel" in a separate box outline (see composite inset).

The socket is designed with tapering upper walls and a thin knurled band around the center.

This socket is also stamped with a "230" model number, a reference to the older line of hex sockets.


832 "Chrome Nickel" 1 Inch Double-Hex Socket

[Walden-Worcester 832 1/2-Drive 1 Inch Double-Hex Socket]
Fig. 89. Walden-Worcester 832 1/2-Drive 1 Inch Double-Hex Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1925.

Fig. 89 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 832 1 inch double-hex socket, marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." inside a box outline, and with "Chrome Nickel" in a separate box outline.

The socket has an interesting rounded base and a thin knurled band around the center.


234/834 "Chrome Nickel" 1-1/16 Double-Hex Socket

[Walden-Worcester 234/834 1/2-Drive 1-1/16 Double-Hex Socket]
Fig. 90. Walden-Worcester 234/834 1/2-Drive 1-1/16 Double-Hex Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail, ca. 1925.

Fig. 90 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 834 1-1/16 double-hex socket, stamped with "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." inside a box outline, and with "Chrome Nickel" in a separate box outline.

The socket is designed with tapering upper walls and a thin knurled band around the center.

This socket is also stamped with a "234" model number, a reference to Walden's older line of hex sockets.


Walden-Worcester "Chrome Alloy" 8xx-Series Sockets

[Walden-Worcester 8xx 1/2-Drive 12-Point Sockets]
Fig. 91. Walden-Worcester 8xx 1/2-Drive 12-Point Sockets, with Insets for Broach and Detail, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 91 shows a group of three 1/2-drive Walden 8xx-series sockets, each marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." inside a box outline, and with "Chrome Alloy" in a separate box outline. The models and sizes are, from the left, 816 (1/2), 825 (25/32), and 836 (1-1/8).

The sockets have tapered walls and a thin knurled band around the center, and the upper (tapered) part is polished. The finish is plain steel.

The upper inset shows the socket broaching details.

The lower row of insets shows the "Chrome Alloy" marking along with the presumed date codes. The date code resembles a lowercase "t" for the lefthand socket, and reversed "Z" codes for the middle and righthand sockets. The use of "Chrome Alloy" here, instead of the earlier "Chrome Nickel", suggests that Walden might have adopted a chrome-vanadium or chrome-molybdenum alloy by this time, as others in the tool industry had done.


Walden-Worcester Early-Style 18xx-Series Sockets

Somewhat after the introduction of the 8xx socket series, Walden produced a new 18xx series of straight-wall 12-point sockets. These sockets remained in production for a number of years, making them relatively easy to find, although usually in a later style with two thin knurled bands. We were fortunate to find a group of sockets in the early form of the 18xx series, identified by a single (and wider) knurled band.

[Walden-Worcester 18xx 1/2-Drive 12-Point Sockets]
Fig. 92. Walden-Worcester 18xx 1/2-Drive 12-Point Sockets, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail.

Fig. 92 shows six of the rarely-seen early style 1/2-drive Walden 18xx-series sockets, each marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." inside a box outline, and with "Chrome Alloy" in a separate box outline. The models and sizes are, from the left, 1819 (19/32), 1820 (5/8), 1822 (11/16), 1825 (25/32), 1830 (15/16), and 1832 (1 Inch).

The sockets are polished and have a thin finish of chrome plate, now worn in some areas. The base has knurled band separated by narrow grooves on either side.

The lower inset shows the "Chrome Alloy" markings in an outline box, plus the presumed date code symbols marked on the sockets. The symbols resemble a lowercase "t" on four sockets, a reversed "7" on one (second from the right, the 1830), and one socket (third from left, 1822) is too worn to read. These sockets were acquired as a group, making it more likely that they were produced around the same time.

The upper inset shows the socket construction and broaching details. There are chatter marks visible on the walls, indicating that these were probably cold-broached. The chips from the broaching have been trimmed close against the walls, similar to the way early Snap-On 12-point sockets were made. (See patent #1,772,723 for a description of Snap-On's method of broaching sockets.)


Walden-Worcester Oval-Drive 5828 Socket

During the mid 1920s Walden received a patent for a configurable type of socket wrench, with the sockets secured to the handle by set-screws instead of being permanently mounted. This allowed a shop to make up its own special-use socket wrenches, combining the socket sizes most commonly used together. The design was covered by patent #1,596,708, issued to F.H. Bellows in 1926.

The idea seems not to have caught on though, as these tools appear to be very rare. However, we were able to acquire one of the special sockets used with these wrenches.

[Walden-Worcester Oval-Drive 5828 7/8 Socket]
Fig. 93. Walden-Worcester Oval-Drive 5828 7/8 Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Detail.

Fig. 93 shows an oval-drive Walden 5828 7/8 socket, marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." inside a box outline, and with "Chrome Alloy" in a separate box outline.

The upper right inset shows the broaching for the socket, with the oval drive clearly visible through the opening. The set-screw for securing the socket can be seen at the base.

The lower inset shows the "Chrome Alloy" marking in the outline box. The style and construction of this socket closely resembles the 8xx series sockets shown above, but with the standard 1/2-drive replaced by the special oval-drive.


Walden-Worcester 1/2-Drive 3330 Deep Socket

[Walden-Worcester 3330 1/2-Drive 15/16 Deep Socket]
Fig. 94. Walden-Worcester 3330 1/2-Drive 15/16 Deep Socket, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 94 shows a rarely-seen early 1/2-drive Walden 3330 15/16 deep socket, marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." inside a box outline.

The socket is drilled for a cross-bar hole and has a wide knurled band, possibly to assist with turning by hand.

The inset shows the size marking and presumed date code, a rotated "t" symbol.


Walden-Worcester 1/2-Drive 3332 Deep Socket

[Walden-Worcester 3332 1/2-Drive 1 Inch Deep Socket]
Fig. 95. Walden-Worcester 3332 1/2-Drive 1 Inch Deep Socket, with Insets for Broaching and Marking Detail.

Fig. 95 shows another example of the 1/2-drive 33xx deep socket series, a Walden 3332 1 inch socket. The socket is marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." in an outline box, with "Chrome Alloy" in another box.

The socket is drilled for a cross-bar hole and has a wide knurled band, possibly to assist with turning by hand.

The lower inset shows the size marking and "Chrome Alloy", plus an "I" symbol as a presumed date code.


Walden-Worcester OR916 1/2-Drive Ratchet

[Walden OR916 1/2-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 96. Walden OR916 1/2-Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail, ca. 1928.

Fig. 96 shows a 1/2-drive Walden model OR916 ratchet, with forged markings "Walden Worcester" with "Made in U.S.A." on the reverse. The overall length is 10.5 inches.

The finish is a thin metal coating of unknown composition.

The OR916 is a ruggedly built ratchet and uses a different mechanism than the earlier 516 and 716 models. This model was listed in Walden's 1928 Handbook No. 263 as their standard 1/2-drive ratchet, and was included in socket sets 16-R, 26-R, and others.


Walden-Worcester 916 1/2-Drive Ratchet

[Walden 916 1/2-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 97. Walden 916 1/2-Drive Ratchet and 1109 Drive Plug, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 97 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 916 female-drive ratchet, with markings "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the handle, and with "Worcester, Mass." on the reverse (not shown).

The overall length is 10.5 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The ratchet is shown with a Walden-Worcester 1109 drive plug.


Stevens Walden Worcester 1115 1/2-Drive 15 Inch Speeder

[Walden 1115 1/2-Drive 15 Inch Speeder]
Fig. 98. Walden 1115 1/2-Drive 15 Inch Speeder, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 98 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1115 15 inch speeder with a rotating hand grip, stamped "Stevens Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the end piece (see composite inset).

The overall length is 15.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Walden-Worcester 1106 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Sliding Tee Head

The next two figures show an unusual type of drive tool, giving the appearance of an extension at first glance, but actually designed as an extended sliding Tee head.

[Walden 1106 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Sliding Tee Head]
Fig. 99. Walden 1106 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Sliding Tee Head, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 99 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1106 6 inch sliding Tee head, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank, with a reversed-Z date code at the right (see composite inset).

The overall length is 6.0 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The upper right inset shows a close-up of the drive head and cross-bar hole. The hole is drilled for a 1/2 diameter bar, and a detent ball is provided as a convenience.


Walden-Worcester 1125 1/2-Drive Ell Handle

[Walden 1125 1/2-Drive Ell Handle]
Fig. 100. Walden 1125 1/2-Drive Ell Handle, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 100 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1125 Ell handle, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank (see composite inset).

The overall length is 10.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


Walden-Worcester 1127 1/2-Drive 12 Inch Sliding Tee Head with Rotating Grip

[Walden 1127 1/2-Drive 12 Inch Sliding Tee Head]
Fig. 101. Walden 1127 1/2-Drive 12 Inch Sliding Tee Head, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. Late 1920s to Early 1930s.

Fig. 101 shows an early 1/2-drive Walden 1127 12 inch sliding Tee head with a rotating grip, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the grip (see composite inset).

The overall length is 12.0 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The upper right inset shows a close-up of the drive head and cross-bar hole. The hole is drilled for a 1/2 diameter bar, and a detent ball is provided as a convenience, to help hold the handle in position.


Walden-Worcester 1127 1/2-Drive 12 Inch Extension with Rotating Grip

Walden later added a broached end to the 1127 tool to make it into an extension, with the cross-bar hole still available for use as a Tee handle.

[Walden 1127 1/2-Drive 12 Inch Extension]
Fig. 102. Walden 1127 1/2-Drive 12 Inch Extension with Rotating Grip, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 102 shows a later 1/2-drive Walden 1127 12 inch extension with a rotating hand grip, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the grip, with the model number at the left and an "I" date code at the right (see composite inset).

The overall length is 12.2 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The upper right inset shows a close-up of the drive head and cross-bar hole, with the end broached for a 1/2 square drive. The hole is drilled for a 1/2 diameter bar, and equipped with a detent ball.


Walden-Worcester 1111 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Handle

[Walden 1111 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Handle]
Fig. 103. Walden 1111 1/2-Drive Sliding Tee Handle, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 103 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1111 sliding Tee handle, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the head.

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

One detail to note here is that the 9/16 diameter handle bar shown in the photograph is a replacement, borrowed from an S-K socket set but believed to be similar to the original Walden piece.

Walden did not offer this model of sliding Tee handle in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Currently we don't have a catalog reference for the tool until the late 1950s, but it probably became available sometime in the mid 1930s. The 1950s version appears to have had a permanently attached handle, but in earlier years Walden often made sliding Tee handles with a removable bar, thus making it easier for the pieces to be separated.


Walden-Worcester 216 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension

[Walden 216 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension]
Fig. 104. Walden 216 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension.

Fig. 104 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 216 6 inch extension, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank.

The overall length is 6.3 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The drive end is knurled for a better grip when turning by hand, a convenience not often seen on early extensions.


Walden-Worcester 1135 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension

[Walden 1135 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension]
Fig. 105. Walden 1135 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 105 at the left shows another extension very similar to the previous figure, a 1/2-drive Walden 1135 6 inch extension. The extension is stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank, and is also stamped with a date code resembling a "7" digit.

The overall length is 6.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.


[Walden 1135 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension]
Fig. 106. Walden 1135 1/2-Drive 6 Inch Extension, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 106 shows a later 1/2-drive Walden 1135 6 inch extension, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the drive head. The head is marked with two parallel bands of knurling, a pattern also seen on later sockets in the 18xx series.

The overall length is 5.9 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


Walden-Worcester 1139 1/2-Drive Extensions

Walden frequently retained the same model numbers for tools even after significant changes had been made to the construction or specifications. The next figures show examples of this in later generations of the Model 1139 1/2-drive extension.

[Later Walden 1139 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension]
Fig. 107. Later Walden 1139 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension.

Fig. 107 shows a later model 1/2-drive Walden 1139 10 inch extension, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the broached end. The shank is also stamped with an inverted "V" date code, but the interpretation is not yet known.

The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The original Model 1139 was a double-male extension with an inserted pin as a stop, quite different from this later version. (And not even inter-operable, if a double-male extension was needed!)

[Walden 1139 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension with Double-Knurl Base]
Fig. 108. Walden 1139 1/2-Drive 10 Inch Extension with Double-Knurl Base.

Fig. 108 at the left shows another later example of the 1/2-drive Walden 1139 extension, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the drive head. The base shows two bands of knurling, a pattern also seen on later sockets in the 18xx series.

The overall length is 9.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Walden-Worcester 1102 1/2-Drive Universal

This next figure shows another example of a later tool retaining the old model number after significant changes.

[Later Walden 1102 1/2-Drive Universal]
Fig. 109. Later Walden 1102 1/2-Drive Universal, with Inset for Detail.

In Fig. 109 we see a later model 1/2-drive Walden 1102 universal, marked "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." in an outline box, and with "Chrome Alloy" in another outline.

The overall length is 2.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The inset shows the "Chrome Alloy" marking and a presumed date code, resembling a rotated (reversed and inverted) "t" symbol.

The earlier Walden 1102 Universal had double-female connections, although since a drive plug would generally have been used, the newer universal design was probably more convenient in most cases.


Walden-Worcester 1113 1/2-Drive Ratchet Adapter

[Walden 1113 1/2-Drive Ratchet Adapter]
Fig. 110. Walden 1113 1/2-Drive Ratchet Adapter, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. Late 1920s.

Fig. 110 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1113 ratchet adapter, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the barrel.

The overall length is 2.9 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

Similar examples of spring-loaded ratchet adapters were produced by several other companies, including Blackhawk, Indestro, and Snap-On. (The Snap-On tool is believed to have been the first available.) Examples can be seen as the Snap-On No. 6 Ratchet Adapter, Blackhawk T-3 Ratchet Adapter, and Indestro Chromium-Vanadium Ratchet Adapter.


Walden-Worcester 1133 1/2-Drive Ratchet Breaker Bar

[Later Walden 1133 1/2-Drive Ratchet Breaker Bar]
Fig. 111. Walden 1133 1/2-Drive Ratchet Breaker Bar, with Inset for Detail.

Fig. 111 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1133 ratchet breaker bar, marked "Walden Worcester" with "Made in U.S.A." (see inset).

The overall length is 10.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Walden-Worcester 1151 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle

[Walden 1151 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle]
Fig. 112. Walden 1151 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail.

Fig. 112 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1151 15 inch flex-head handle, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with an "I" date code.

The overall length is 15.5 inches. The finish is plated, but of unknown composition.

The handle is provided with both a cross-bar hole and a 1/2-drive end broach, as can be seen in the right inset. These features allow additional use as a Tee-handle or extension, making this a very flexible tool.


Walden-Worcester 1152 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle

[Later Walden 1152 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle]
Fig. 113. Later Walden 1152 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle, with Inset for End Detail.

Fig. 113 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1152 flex-head handle, marked "Walden Worcester" with "Made in U.S.A." and a "v" date code.

The overall length is 10.5 inches. The finish is now mostly plain steel, but may have been cadmium plating originally.

The handle is provided with both a cross-bar hole and a 1/2-drive end broach, as can be seen in the inset detail. These features allow additional use as a Tee-handle or extension, making this a very flexible tool.


Walden-Worcester 1153 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle

[Walden 1153 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle]
Fig. 114. Walden 1153 1/2-Drive Flex-Head Handle, with Insets for Head and End Detail.

Fig. 114 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1153 flex-head handle, marked "Walden Worcester" with "Made in U.S.A." with a reversed-"7" date code. The overall length is 15.6 inches.

The left inset shows a closeup of the flexible head, with a groove to act as a detent.

As with the previous figures, the knurled handle is provided with both a cross-bar hole and a 1/2-drive end broach, for operation as a Tee-handle or extension.


Walden-Worcester 1130 1/2-Drive Drag Link Driver

[Walden 1153 1/2-Drive Drag Link Driver]
Fig. 115. Walden 1130 1/2-Drive Drag Link Driver, with Insets for Top View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 115 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1130 drag link driver, marked "Walden Worcester" with "Made in U.S.A." and a "W" date code.

The overall height is 1.6 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.


5/8-Drive Tools

During the late 1920s and 1930s Walden also offered tools in the 5/8 drive size. The 5/8-drive tools are less common than the 1/2-drive or even 1 inch hex drive lines, suggesting that Walden's 5/8-drive line was not very popular.


Walden-Worcester 5/8-Drive Ratchet

[Walden 2285 5/8-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 116. Walden 2285 5/8-Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Reverse and Side Views, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 116 shows a Walden 2285 5/8-drive ratchet, marked with "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Walden Worcester" and "Worcester, Mass." forged into the reverse.

The overall length is 15.9 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The ratchet mechanism has a 16-tooth drive gear. The female drive gear is intended to work with the Walden 2284 Drive Plug shown in the next figure.


Walden-Worcester 2284 5/8-Drive Plug

[Walden 2284 5/8-Drive Plug]
Fig. 117. Walden 2284 5/8-Drive Plug, ca. Late 1920s to 1930s.

Fig. 117 shows the Walden 2284 5/8-drive plug for use with the 2285 ratchet, stamped "Walden Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." on the shank.

The overall length is 1.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


5/16-Hex Drive Tools

During the 1930s Walden produced a line of miniature drive tools with 5/16 hex drive, a somewhat unusual drive size.


Walden-Worcester 5/16-Hex Drive Socket Set

[Walden 5/16-Hex Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 118. Walden 5/16-Hex Drive Socket Set, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 118 shows a Walden 5/16-hex drive socket set in a metal case, marked with "Walden Worcester Wrenches" and "Made in U.S.A." embossed on the top cover. The tools in the photograph are, from bottom to top, a drive handle, an insertable drive shaft, 8 sockets (with one missing), and a sliding Tee handle. The drive handle is marked with the Walden-Worcester name and a 3801 model number, with the other tools unmarked except for the sizes on the sockets.

The sockets in the set include two square and six double-hex broachings. The sizes are, from the left, 1/4 square, 5/16 square, 1/4, 5/16, 11/32, 3/8, 7/16 (missing), and 1/2. The sockets are marked only with the sizes, in the form "1-2" for 1/2. The finish is cadmium plating.

[Top Cover of Walden 5/16-Hex Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 119. Top Cover of Walden 5/16-Hex Drive Socket Set.

Fig. 119 shows the top cover of the Walden 5/16-hex drive socket set box, showing the embossed markings "Walden Worcester Wrenches" within a rectangle, with "Made in U.S.A." in a circular arc.

The overall dimensions of the box are 4.8 wide by 4.1 deep by 1.3 high, all in inches. The finish is black paint.


Walden-Worcester 3117 1/4-Drive Flex-Head Handle

[Walden 5/16-Hex Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 120. Walden 3117 1/4-Drive Flex-Head Handle, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1940s.

Fig. 120 shows a Walden 3117 1/4-drive flex handle, stamped "Walden-Worcester" and "Made in U.S.A." with an inverted-V date code.

The overall length is 5.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel, possibly with traces of cadmium plating.


3/4-Drive Tools


Walden-Worcester 5176 3/4-Drive Ratchet

[Walden-Worcester 5176 3/4-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 121. Walden-Worcester 5176 3/4-Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 121 shows a 3/4-drive Walden 5176 female-drive ratchet, marked "Walden Worcester" with "Made in U.S.A." and a "W" date code.

The overall length is 20.0 inches, and the finish is black oxide.


The Modern Period, 1946-1990?

During this period Walden continued producing many of the same drive tool models, but the designs were generally simplified, and the markings were often just "Walden" and a model number. Most tools were finished in polished chrome.


Walden 1116 1/2-Drive Non-Reversible Ratchet

[Walden 1116 1/2-Drive Non-Reversible Ratchet]
Fig. 122. Walden 1116 1/2-Drive Non-Reversible Ratchet, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 122 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1116 ratchet with a female drive broaching, marked only "1116 STW" on the knurled handle. The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plate.

The rather coarse ratchet mechanism uses a 12-tooth drive gear with a cylindrical pawl, very similar to the mechanism in the old Billings Model CA ratchets.


Walden 1150 1/2-Drive Ratchet

[Walden 1150 1/2-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 123. Walden 1150 1/2-Drive Ratchet, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 123 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1150 ratchet, marked only "Walden 1150" on the knurled handle. The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plate.

The ratchet mechanism uses a 20-tooth drive gear with a pivoting pawl.


Walden 1160 1/2-Drive Ratchet

[Walden 1160 1/2-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 124. Walden 1160 1/2-Drive Ratchet, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 124 shows a 1/2-drive Walden 1160 ratchet, marked only "Walden 1160" on the knurled handle. The overall length is 10.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plate.

The ratchet mechanism uses a 20-tooth drive gear with a pivoting pawl.


Walden 4032 3/8-Drive Flex-Head Handle

[Walden 4032 3/8-Drive Flex-Head Handle]
Fig. 125. Walden 4032 3/8-Drive Flex-Head Handle.

Fig. 125 shows a 3/8-drive Walden 4032 flex-head handle, marked only "Walden 4032" on the knurled handle.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is chrome plate.

The drive head is held by a split spring pin, and a wave washer provides friction to hold the head in position.


Walden 4032 3/8-Drive Extensible Flex-Head Handle

[Walden 4032 3/8-Drive Extensible Flex-Head Handle]
Fig. 126. Walden 4032 3/8-Drive Extensible Flex-Head Handle.

In Fig. 126 we see a similar a 3/8-drive Walden 4032 flex-head handle, but with a larger knurled handle drilled to accept an extension bar.

The overall length is 7.7 inches, and the finish is chrome plate.


Walden 4050 3/8-Drive Ratchet

[Walden 4050 3/8-Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 127. Walden 4050 3/8-Drive Ratchet, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 127 shows a 3/8-drive Walden 4050 ratchet with a forged handle, marked "Walden Worcester" in forged raised letters, with "4050" and "Made in U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plate.

The ratchet mechanism has a 22-tooth main gear with dual pawls, each of which engages two teeth.


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