Alloy Artifacts  

Keystone Manufacturing Company

Table of Contents

Introduction

Keystone Manufacturing was a tool maker operating in Buffalo, New York. The company's products included ratchets, ratchet drills, adjustable wrenches, and socket sets. One of their better-known products was the Westcott adjustable "S" wrench, originally produced by the Westcott company but made by Keystone from about 1900 onward.


Company History

[1892 Notice for Keystone Manufacturing]
Fig. 1. 1892 Notice for Keystone Manufacturing. [External Link]

Keystone Manufacturing was in business by 1892, based on the notice in Fig. 1, published on page 585 of the September 29, 1892 issue of The Iron Age.

The text notes the election of the board of directors and officers of the company, with G.A. Schaefer as president.

[1893 Ad for Keystone Manufacturing]
Fig. 2. 1893 Ad for Keystone Manufacturing. [External Link]

Fig. 2 shows an early ad for Keystone ratchet wrenches, as published on page 61 of the December 28, 1893 issue of The Iron Age.

[1902 Ad for Keystone Manufacturing]
Fig. 3. 1902 Ad for Keystone Manufacturing. [External Link]

Fig. 3 shows another ad for Keystone Manufacturing, as published on page 130 of the May 8, 1902 issue of The Iron Age. The illustration shows a "Monarch" ratchet drill and Westcott "S" pipe and nut wrenches.


Patents

Keystone Manufacturing: Issued Patents
Patent No.InventorFiledIssuedNotes and Examples
446,072 C.H. Myers 11/14/1889 02/10/1891 Combined ratchet and screwdriver
539,423 J. Emig 04/10/1894 05/21/1895 Ratchet drill
1,534,537 E.S. Miller 05/20/1924 04/21/1925 Holder for Socket Wrench Sets
1,671,159 E.S. Miller et al 06/30/1925 05/29/1928 Holder for Socket Wrench Sets
1,694,444 E.S. Miller et al 06/27/1925 12/25/1928 Holder for Socket Wrench Sets
1,761,263 F.A. Haist 08/09/1927 06/03/1930 Method of Making Ratchet Wrenches
2,199,984 C.H. Chur 11/07/1938 05/07/1940 Wrench Set Holder

Trademarks

In 1907 Keystone received the "Westcott" trademark #62,642 on May 21 for pipe and nut wrenches, the "Monarch" trademark #63,021 on June 4 for hand ratchets, and the "Keystone" trademark #63,022 on June 4 for hand ratchets and nail sets.

Keystone Manufacturing: Registered Trademarks
Text Mark or Logo Reg. No. First Use Date Filed Date Issued Notes
Westcott 62,642 01/01/189702/23/1907 05/21/1907 Pipe and nut wrenches
Monarch 63,021  02/21/1907 06/04/1907 Hand ratchets
Keystone 63,022 01/01/189702/21/1907 06/04/1907 Hand ratchets and nail sets
SocKit 190,109 02/16/192403/27/1924 10/07/1924 Kits of socket wrenches
Serial 194,543. Published 07/29/1924.

References and Resources

Photographs and observations of particular tools are based on items in the Alloy Artifacts Collection.

Industrial Distributors

Keystone tools were widely available through industrial distributors.


Selected Tools


Westcott No. 78 8 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench

[Keystone Westcott No. 78 8 Inch Adjustable S Wrench]
Fig. 4. Keystone Westcott No. 78 8 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 4 shows a Westcott No. 78 8 inch adjustable "S" wrench, marked with "Westcott" and "The Keystone Mfg. Co." forged into the handle. The lower inset shows the model number and size forged into the reverse side, which is also marked "Buffalo NY USA" (not shown).

The overall length is 7.9 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.1 inches. The finish is black paint.


Westcott No. 80 10 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench

[Keystone Westcott No. 80 10 Inch Adjustable S Wrench]
Fig. 5. Keystone Westcott No. 80 10 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 5 shows a Westcott No. 80 10 inch adjustable "S" wrench, marked with "Westcott" and "The Keystone Mfg. Co." cast into the handle, with "10 Inch No. 80" and "Buffalo NY USA" cast into the reverse.

The overall length is 10.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.5 inches. The finish is black paint.


Westcott No. 82 12 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench

[Keystone Westcott No. 82 12 Inch Adjustable S Wrench]
Fig. 6. Keystone Westcott No. 82 12 Inch Adjustable "S" Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Reverse Detail.

Fig. 6 shows a Westcott No. 82 12 inch adjustable "S" wrench, marked with "Westcott" and "The Keystone Mfg. Co." cast into the handle, with "12 Inch No. 82" and "Buffalo NY USA" cast into the reverse.

The overall length is 11.8 inches, and the maximum opening is 1.7 inches. The finish is black paint.


Keystone M1555 Ratchet

[Keystone M1555 1/2-Hex Drive Ratchet]
Fig. 7. Keystone M1555 1/2-Hex Drive Ratchet, with Inset for Reverse.

Fig. 7 shows a 1/2-hex drive Keystone M1555 ratchet, with "Ratchet Wrench" forged in the handle, and with "The Keystone Mfg. Co." and "Buffalo, N.Y. U.S.A." on the reverse.

The overall length is 7.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Keystone 1/2-hex Drive Socket Set

The next several figures show a Keystone 1/2-hex drive socket set in a folding metal case.

[Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Socket Set]
Fig. 8. Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Socket Set, with Inset for Top View.

Fig. 8 shows a 1/2-hex drive Keystone socket set in a compact folding case, as seen from the side and top. The set consists of an M1555 ratchet, an ell handle, eight sockets, and the metal case.

[Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Sockets in Holder]
Fig. 9. Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Sockets in Holder.

In Fig. 9 the metal holder has been opened to show the sockets in place. Note how the sides have been folded over and cut with scalloped openings to secure the sockets in place.

The sockets are broached with 12-point openings. The socket sizes are, from the left, 15/16, 7/8, 3/4, 11/16, 5/8, 9/16, 1/2, and 7/16.


Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Ell-Handle and Ratchet from Socket Set

[Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Ratchet and Ell Handle]
Fig. 10. Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Ratchet and Ell Handle.

Fig. 10 shows the 1/2-hex drive M1555 ratchet and ell handle from the Keystone socket set.

The ratchet is shown with the 1/2-hex drive stud. The forged handle has raised-letter markings "Ratchet Wrench M1555" on one side, with "The Keystone Mfg. Co." and "Buffalo, N.Y. U.S.A." on the reverse. The overall length is 7.5 inches.

The ell handle is unmarked and has an overall length of 7.1 inches. The straight end of the handle does not have stop tabs, making it possible to push the handle through the ratchet for use as an extension.


Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Sockets from Socket Set

[Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Sockets]
Fig. 11. Keystone 1/2-Hex Drive Sockets.

Fig. 11 shows a closeup of three 1/2-hex drive sockets from the Keystone set. The sockets have a band of cross-hatched knurling around the base, and are marked with only the fractional sizes.

The sizes are, from the left, 7/16, 5/8, and 15/16.


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